Bronchial asthma – a disease of the respiratory system characterized by narrowing vozduhovyvodyaschih ways. The pathology itself is not infectious, it is chronic. However, with an illness, a person’s immunity weakens, the body becomes vulnerable to pathogenic microbes. Therefore, antibiotics are prescribed for bronchial asthma.
Indications for use
Antibiotic therapy is necessary when concomitant infectious diseases join asthma:
- Bronchitis: the pathogen invades the mucous membrane of the respiratory tree. The inflammatory process affects the bronchi of large and medium caliber.
- Bronchiolitis : inflammation in the bronchioles. More often observed in childhood.
- Pneumonia: the lungs are involved in the inflammatory process.
The listed pathological conditions are associated with bronchial asthma in the acute stage. This is indicated by the following clinical picture:
- severe cough, shortness of breath, shortness of breath;
- sputum of a yellowish green hue;
- lethargy, loss of interest in what is happening, severe weakness;
- pain and discomfort in the sternum.
If the listed symptoms occur, you must contact the clinic.
Self-medication is prohibited. This will lead to serious complications. Only a doctor can choose an effective therapy regimen.
Bronchial asthma occurs for the following reasons:
- improper use of medications;
- stressful situations;
- penetration of infectious agents into the respiratory system (the occurrence of respiratory diseases, colds).
Respiratory tract infections
In the first two cases, the use of antibacterial drugs will not only not bring a therapeutic result, but will also be harmful.
Antibiotics from the penicillin group are contraindicated for asthma. They can worsen the course of the pathological condition, since they have a high rate of allergic activity.
Treatment with antibacterial drugs should be carried out under the supervision of a highly qualified specialist. Any type of medication has individual contraindications and adverse reactions.
Mechanism of action
They take antibiotics for bronchial asthma from the following list of groups:
Preparations from the macrolide group
- macrolides ;
- fluoroquinolones ;
Macrolides are natural or semi-synthetic antibiotics with a wide spectrum of action. Active active ingredients tend to accumulate in the cells of the immune system, destroy pathogenic microorganisms from the inside.
Macrolides are the safest and most effective drugs against gram-positive and gram-negative microbes. They have a bacteriostatic effect. When taking large doses, they also give a bactericidal effect.
Fluoroquinolones have a bactericidal effect. Active substances suppress the production of enzymes necessary for the synthesis of infectious agents. Due to this, pathogens cannot multiply and spread throughout the body. Fluoroquinols penetrate deeply into tissue structures, are well absorbed in the digestive tract. Therefore, they are usually taken orally.
Cephalosporins are bactericidal. They damage the cell wall of pathogens (inhibit the synthesis of the peptidoglycan layer) that are in the multiplication phase. Cephalosporins release autolytic enzymes, which leads to the death of pathogens.
Name and description of effective antibiotics for bronchial asthma:
- Cefaclor : belongs to the second generation cephalosporin group. It is produced in the form of suspensions, capsules, coated tablets. Has a wide range of effects. It is active against many gram-negative and gram-positive microorganisms. Does not kill anaerobic bacteria. Can be used for babies from one month of age. It is discharged with caution during gestation and breastfeeding.
- Abaktal : refers to fluoroquinolones . Available in the form of tablets, solution for intravenous injection. The active ingredient is pefloxacin mesylate dihydrate . It is a synthetic drug with a bactericidal effect. Inhibits the replication of pathogens at the DNA gyrase level . The medication is not prescribed during pregnancy and lactation, in relation to underage patients, with allergies to quinolones . It is used with caution in renal failure, severe liver failure, central nervous system disorders.
- Sumamed : belongs to macrolides . The active active ingredient is azithromycin dihydrate . Produced in tablet form. Has a wide spectrum of antimicrobial action. Suppresses protein synthesis of pathogenic cells, slowing down the reproduction and spread of pathogenic microorganisms. Contraindications: intolerance of the constituent components, severe liver pathologies, phenylketonuria , age up to 3 years. It is not used in conjunction with ergotamine, dihydroergotamine .
- Ceclor : belongs to the group of cephalosporins. The active substance is cefaclor . The second generation antibiotic has a broad spectrum of action. Destroys pathogenic microorganisms at the cellular level. It is not prescribed for hypersensitivity to the constituent components. It is used with caution before the age of one month, with leukopenia, hemorrhagic syndrome, pregnancy, breastfeeding, chronic renal failure.
- Cyprolet : belongs to the fluoroquinolone family . The active ingredient is ciprofloxacin hydrochloride. It is produced in the form of tablets and drops. Destroys pathogens at the stage of reproduction and at rest. It is not prescribed for allergy sufferers in case of a reaction to the constituent components, with pseudomembranous colitis, pregnancy and breastfeeding, under the age of 18 years. It is used with caution in elderly patients, with problems with the blood supply to the brain, mental disorders, epileptic seizures, convulsions, renal and hepatic insufficiency.
Before using any medication, you should consult your doctor.
How to apply correctly
Antibiotics for bronchial asthma are used in the form of tablets, suspensions, injections. The form of medication used is influenced by the severity of the pathological condition, the age of the patient.
Injection drugs start to work faster. They do not penetrate the digestive tract, but are immediately absorbed into the circulatory system. Injections should only be given by a qualified healthcare professional.
The duration of therapy is five to ten days. The dosage is determined by the attending physician. It is forbidden to interrupt therapy on your own (even if the condition has improved) and to change the dosage of the drug. This can provoke unwanted consequences.
With uncontrolled intake of antibacterial agents, the patient’s condition may worsen. The following side reactions may occur:
- nausea, vomiting, problems with stool;
- violation of microflora (dysbiosis);
- stomach ache;
- heartburn and bloating;
- excessive irritability, depression;
- insomnia, nightmares.
If side effects occur, taking antibacterial drugs should be stopped, you should immediately consult a doctor. He will reduce the dosage or prescribe other medications for bronchial asthma.