Respiratory organs are a complex system, starting with the nose and ending with the smallest bronchi. The air passes through the nose, but owls, enters the trachea and spreads through the large and small bronchi. Normally, in a healthy person, the air easily enters the lungs, reaches the smallest bronchi and alve ol, where the exchange between inhaled air and blood takes place. In addition, the structure of the respiratory tract is quite complex. The airways are lined with a special layer of epithelium that protects them from the harmful effects of the environment.
One of the quite common diseases that prevent “breathing deeply,” is bronchial asthma.
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs, in which there is a violation of the patency of the bronchi. The basis of the onset of an asthma attack is the contact of the respiratory tract with a provoking agent, which causes a pathological response in the body in the form of inflammation. Due to it, the bronchial wall edema develops. The wall thickens, and at the same time the bronchial muscle fibers contract, and bronchospasm develops. In spasmodic bronchi, there is an accumulation of mucus, which disrupts the process of free passage of air flow. There is a feeling of lack of air, shortness of breath, wheezing.
Bronchial asthma is a spasm of the muscles of the bronchi, swelling of the mucous membrane, secretion of mucus, leading to disruption of air movement and the occurrence of shortness of breath, cough, wheezing in the chest, feelings of heaviness.
The inflammation that occurs in the bronchial tree cannot develop on its own, for no reason. Until now, the answer to the question of why someone develops bronchial asthma, and someone does not, is quite difficult, much remains to be completely unclear. Today, scientists identify two groups of factors that explain the occurrence of bronchial asthma — factors that cause the development of asthma, and factors that trigger the onset of symptoms. The factors causing the development of bronchial asthma are internal factors due to genetic predisposition. Unfortunately, it is impossible to influence this factor, and in the families of people suffering from bronchial asthma, this relationship is well traced. Obesity is also related to internal risk factors2. Some studies have shown that biologically active substances (for example, leptin), an excess of which is observed in individuals with increased body mass, can affect the function of the respiratory tract and increase the likelihood of developing bronchial asthma. Male sex is also a risk factor for asthma. However, as they grow older, sex differences are smoothed out; in adults, the prevalence of asthma in women exceeds that in men.
External factors include environmental factors that contribute to the development of inflammation in the bronchial tree. Absolutely everything that a person encounters in the process of vital activity can cause the development of bronchial asthma. The main causes are various allergens, which include house and street dust, various types of fungi and molds, pollen from various plants, various foods, representatives of any drugs, smoking, etc. In addition, work in some industries may be associated with increased risk of developing bronchial asthma. For example, workers in flour mills, confectioneries, shoe factories, as well as joiners, bricklayers, seamstresses, furriers suffer from asthma more often than people who do not have contact with occupational allergens.
A bronchospasm that occurs in bronchial asthma is a reversible process. However, frequent bouts of bronchial obstruction and inflammation make their changes in the normal structure of the bronchial tree – they make the bronchial mucosa supersensitive. Hypersensitivity is a characteristic feature of the disease, in which factors that do not harm a healthy person cause inflammation and bronchospasm in a patient with asthma.
Thus, bronchial asthma is a spasm of the muscles of the bronchi, swelling of the mucous membrane, secretion of mucus, leading to disruption of air movement and the occurrence of shortness of breath, cough, wheezing in the chest, feelings of heaviness. If the narrowing of the bronchi is very strong, then an attack of suffocation occurs. A characteristic feature of bronchial asthma is also the occurrence of a choking attack immediately after contact with a provoking factor and the reduction of symptoms or their complete disappearance after the cessation of contact.