Bronchial asthma: why an attack occurs

Bronchial asthma is a widespread pathology found in 5-10% of humanity. Everyone knows that it is characteristic of asthma attacks, but not everyone knows how to help the patient.

Bronchial asthma: why an attack occurs

An asthma attack is most often triggered by irritation of the bronchi with such triggers:

  • concentrated odors (sharp perfume, fumes of household chemicals and medicines, cosmetics);
  • tobacco smoke;
  • exhaust gases (for example, at a high concentration in the garage, with a long stay at a stop, etc.);
  • the effects of certain medications;
  • cold air (especially in combination with physical activity, for example, when running in the winter in the open);
  • dust (both household and industrial).

In addition, often bronchial asthma worsens with psychoemotional stress.

Bronchial asthma: how to recognize an attack

An attack of bronchial asthma can occur suddenly or within a few minutes and even hours after exposure to factors provoking an attack. In the second case, the so-called “precursors” of the attack are observed:

  • coughing;
  • headache ;
  • sneezing
  • shortness of breath with prolonged exhalation;
  • insomnia (if an attack occurs at night);
  • itchy skin and / or rash;
  • acute rhinitis.

Bronchial asthma immediately at the time of the attack is characterized by the appearance of a patient:

  • pale or bluish coloration of the skin;
  • anxiety
  • difficulty speaking;
  • slow, wheezing, noisy breathing with wheezing;
  • forced position of the body (sitting, bending over and resting on hands);
  • noticeable difficulty exhaling;
  • cough with difficult to separate glassy, ​​viscous sputum (at the end of the attack).

Bronchial asthma: first aid

First aid for an attack is to improve the well-being of the patient before the arrival of medical staff. Often correctly provided first aid helps save a person’s life. So you need to:

  • make sure that all possible factors that trigger the attack are eliminated (remove the patient from a dusty, smokeless room, etc.);
  • provide access to fresh air (open the window, loosen the tie for the patient, unbutton his shirt, etc.);
  • reassure the patient;
  • check with him if he has a history of bronchial asthma (if so, then he may have an inhaler or a medication for treating an attack);
  • help the patient use the inhaler and / or take pills (this can be atropine, aminophylline, theofedrine or isadrine, antihistamines);
  • if possible, make the patient foot or hand warm baths;
  • do distracting, warming massage of the back and / or chest.

It should be borne in mind that in children bronchial asthma worsens, as a rule, without bronchospasm. In this case, the main role in the development of an attack is played by an increase in the formation of viscous mucus and swelling of the bronchi, as a result of which the usual inhaled aerosols are ineffective. Sometimes the symptoms of an attack in children can be alleviated and even eliminated by simply laying the patient in bed, inviting him to get distracted by toys, books, etc., calming him down and making foot baths. But this is far from always enough. Therefore, it may be necessary to use tableted anti-asthma drugs (aminophylline, isadrine, etc.) at an age-specific dosage. If the attack lasts more than half an hour, you should call an ambulance, as bronchial asthma can be complicated by the development of asthmatic status.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *