Asthma can occur for a variety of reasons. One of them is the ingestion of an allergen into the respiratory tract. It is impossible to completely recover from the disease today, but it is possible with the help of drug therapy to stop the attack and significantly reduce the likelihood of an exacerbation.
The therapy is carried out in a complex manner, and for successful treatment, in addition to inhalation and the use of medications, a diet for asthma is mandatory. Eating certain foods that contain substances that can cause an allergic reaction leads to an aggravation. Therefore, bronchial asthma is always treated by limiting the patient’s diet.
What is a diet for bronchial asthma
In asthma, many factors can cause an attack – cold or hot air, pollen or mechanical irritants – dust, pieces of food. In this case, the mucous membranes covering the walls of the respiratory tract are irritated. The muscles of the bronchi narrow sharply, which provokes severe spasm and blockage of the airways. It becomes extremely difficult for the patient to breathe.
Choosing the right diet for asthma helps to strengthen the immune system. The body spends much less energy on the digestion of easily digestible food, due to which it can more effectively fight inflammatory processes in the bronchi. Also, diet therapy for bronchial asthma helps to reduce the sensitivity of the mucous membranes of organs to allergens.
With aspirin asthma, diet is necessary to reduce the likelihood of substances that cause an allergic reaction entering the body. Many foods contain the same substances as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The use of these products leads to an attack of the disease and complications.
A diet for bronchial asthma is necessary for the patient to maintain normal life. Proper nutrition reduces the risk of an exacerbation of the disease, reduces sensitivity to allergens and partially eliminates the inconvenience.
General dietary rules for asthma
Nutritional rules for bronchial asthma in adults are based on the principle of hypoallergenicity . Foods used for asthma should be easily digested without causing an allergic reaction. The diet is determined by the form of the disease. If the patient has a reaction to food allergens, a special diet is prescribed.
Recommendations of nutritionists and gastroenterologists for bronchial asthma – treatment table No. 9. The diet includes a list of foods necessary to normalize metabolism, reduce the effect of disease manifestations on vital functions, and reduce the risk of recurrent attacks. The principle of compiling the menu is based on the complete exclusion of all products that can lead to an allergic reaction.
A number of foods that increase the sensitivity of the pharyngeal mucosa are also desirable to exclude from the diet. It is also best to avoid extractives: carnosine , creatine, anserine , purine bases. They significantly increase the threshold of mucosal irritability, which increases the risk of exacerbation. A large amount of extractives is found in fatty meat.
In fact, table number 9 is a complete diet, in which the amount of allergenic foods is limited. Some foods containing carbohydrates and sugars are excluded. Dishes are steamed and boiled. Fried food can harm a weakened body. Baking or stewing food is allowed. The amount of spices is limited to minimum values.
The normal calorie intake for asthma patients does not exceed 2500 kilocalories. You need to eat often, but in small portions to reduce the load on the body and improve the digestibility of food. What can you drink for asthma?
Preferably clean, still water. The amount of liquid per day must exceed 1.8 liters. A large amount of fluid is useful to supply water to the mucous membranes of the respiratory tract.
In addition to still water, you can drink juices and dried fruit compotes. They contain a large amount of carotene, vitamins, flavonoids.
Drinking alcohol is acceptable in moderation. Small portions are not believed to be harmful. Wines made from pure grapes are good for the patient’s body.
The diet for bronchial asthma includes many foods that do not contain allergens, thereby greatly reducing the risk of an attack. Permitted food for bronchial asthma includes:
- cereal porridge – buckwheat, oatmeal, millet, rice or pearl barley;
- vegetables, fruits – cabbage, boiled potatoes, pumpkin seeds, apples, plums, pears;
- greens rich in minerals – dill or parsley;
- fats and oils – vegetable, mainly sunflower oil. It is allowed to use olive oil;
- dairy products – low-fat kefir and milk processing products, low-fat cottage cheese, cheese without additives;
- offal from meat are allowed, especially liver. You can also eat lean beef, turkey, pork, rabbit meat;
- permitted fish – herring, mackerel, red fish, tuna meat;
- you can drink herbal teas, rose hips, non-concentrated juices, for example, mixed with water;
- from bakery products, varieties of bread are allowed from second grade wheat, gray and rye.
The main dishes for patients are vegetable soups, casseroles, salads, cereals and boiled meat products. When cooking, you need to strive to maximize the amount of vitamins in food, without increasing the calorie content of the dish.
Failure to comply with the requirements significantly increases the risk of exacerbation.
Prohibited or partially restricted products
When dieting during the treatment of bronchial asthma, part of the foods containing a large amount of saturated lipids, cholesterol, oxalic acid and other difficult to break down substances are prohibited.
It is much more difficult for a weakened body to digest heavy foods, in addition, some foods can lead to an exacerbation of the disease.
What can not be eaten with bronchial asthma:
- semolina porridge, pasta and noodles;
- nuts, sunflower and pumpkin seeds, some early ripening vegetables, garlic and onions, pickled cabbage;
- citrus fruits, pineapples, cranberries, blackberries;
- margarine, lard, lamb;
- raw and fried eggs, sausage, especially smoked, canned foods;
- spicy pickled vegetables, too sour or spicy food;
- mustard, hot peppers, sauces (adjika, ketchup, mayonnaise);
- fresh milk and fatty sour cream;
- meat with a high lipid content, chicken, strong broths;
- fermented drinks (kvass, beer) containing a sick percentage of gas;
- strong alcoholic and stimulating drinks (coffee, cocoa);
- baked goods with a high sugar content;
- fresh baked goods.
List of products allowed for consumption in limited quantities:
- rye and corn porridge;
- all kinds of mushrooms, eggplants, radishes and radishes, grapes;
- up to 20 grams of sugar and up to 8 grams of salt per day;
- skim milk can be consumed only when added to porridge;
- leaf teas, green and black;
- white butter bread.
Features of the diet for asthma against the background of hay fever
If you are allergic to pollen, you need to form a diet taking into account the type of pollen that leads to the attack. It is important to limit the amount of allergenic foods that a person with bronchial asthma consumes.
If you are allergic to ragweed or wormwood pollen, you need to refuse the following products:
- seasonings and herbs;
In case of an allergic reaction to tree pollen, especially birch, poplar, apple trees:
- fruits of trees of the Pink family (apple, pear, peach);
- Birch juice.
In case of an abnormal reaction to cereal pollen, the following are limited:
- fresh bread and baked goods;
- fermented drinks (kvass, beer);
- pasta, vermicelli;
- cereal cereals;
- drinks that cause excitement of the nervous system.
Diet for aspirin asthma
With aspirin asthma, the patient must definitely refuse to take medications containing allergens. During treatment, it is necessary to exclude all non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as other medicines containing aspirin.
It is necessary to give up vegetables and fruits containing salicylates: apples, blueberries, grapes, cherries, cucumbers, broccoli, peanuts and citrus fruits.
Products containing various dyes and additives are removed from the menu. Fatty and fried foods are excluded from the diet, as are smoked and canned foods.
The diet is based on fresh vegetables and fruits: cabbage, carrots, celery. Restrictions also apply to alcohol and kvass. It is desirable to reduce the number of tomatoes in the diet.
Diet for asthma in children
The composition of a hypoallergenic diet for bronchial asthma in children will need to include all the nutrients necessary for growth and development, trace elements, vitamins and macronutrients.
Proper nutrition of an asthmatic child should contain a large amount of fresh foods that improve the excretion of phlegm from the bronchi. The number of allergens in the diet also decreases.
If honey does not cause an allergic reaction, it can be given as an expectorant. The composition of the diet for children should be supplemented with foods that expand the lumen of the bronchi. This property is possessed by vegetables and fruits containing a large amount of magnesium.
Fresh marine fish – tuna, herring, sardines and anchovies – are high in unsaturated fatty acids. With their regular use, the amount of sputum in the organs of the respiratory system decreases.
With bronchial asthma, children can eat foods containing antioxidants. These substances slow down the oxidation processes in the body. They are found in large quantities in foods rich in flavonoids and anthocyanins.
Of vegetables and fruits, there are many of them in blueberries, cranberries, grapes and raisins, raspberries, cabbage, radish, beans. Regular consumption of foods containing antioxidants helps to strengthen the immune system.
Products that provoke an attack in children include: milk, eggs, hard cheese with mold, spicy cheeses, smoked and fatty sausages, seafood.
It is undesirable to use food additives and spices. They are especially abundant in confectionery, carbonated drinks, and chewing gum.
The child may develop an allergic reaction from drinking milk. In early childhood, the child’s body receives most of the proteins from the milk of cows .
If a child develops small redness that will gradually dry out and form dry crusts on the cheeks, abdomen or limbs, it is worth excluding dairy products from the diet.
As we grow older, allergies disappear. However, it should be borne in mind that with age, enzymes that break down milk may cease to be secreted, so a child with asthma will need to be given it in small portions at first.
With diseases of the respiratory tract, especially asthma, you should try to follow the diet recommended by your doctor. Allergen-free food for asthma allows a person to live life to the fullest, reducing the risk of an attack by eliminating food that exacerbates the disease from the menu.
The diet is selected by a dietitian after examinations. When taking into account the selected products, the patient’s health status, individual reactions to food and the causes of allergies are taken into account. A sharp change in diet can lead to weakness, lack of feeling of fullness, but over time, the patient will get used to the menu.