Endogenous asthma is an inflammatory disease of the airways that is caused by the body’s response to various stimuli. If the cause of the disease is factors that are not associated with exposure to allergens from the external environment, the patient is diagnosed with an endogenous form of asthma.
The diagnosis and treatment of this pathology must be treated with utmost care, since the disease progresses over time. In many cases, the disease develops in women between the ages of 30 and 40, endogenous bronchial asthma is much less common in men.
Types of bronchial asthma
Exogenous asthma, which is also called allergic, or atopic, form of a disease of the respiratory system, develops against the background of the body’s reaction to various allergens in the external environment.
This type of pathology is often and most often found in women over the age of 35-40 years.
The endogenous form of bronchial asthma in most cases develops at a rapid pace and has no connection with hereditary factors and allergies – this greatly complicates the diagnosis of the disease and makes its treatment less effective.
Factors affecting the development of endogenous bronchial asthma
The endogenous form of bronchial asthma most often occurs under the influence of the following factors:
- severe hypothermia of the body;
- the development of gastroesophageal reflux – that is, a pathology in which the contents of the stomach enter the esophageal cavity;
- excessive physical activity;
- hormonal disorders;
- diseases of the respiratory system of an infectious nature;
- period of pregnancy;
- various diseases of the endocrine system;
- inflammatory lesions of the bronchi;
- strong nervous shocks and stress.
In some cases, the causes of the development of endogenous bronchial asthma are associated with the intake of certain medications, for example, containing acetylsalicylic acid.
In such situations, the drug acts as an aggressive substance that provokes problems in the functioning of the respiratory system.
The same negative impact on the state of the respiratory system is exerted by harmful working conditions at work, unfavorable environmental conditions.
In addition, the risk group includes people whose professional activities are associated with prolonged oxygen starvation – divers, pilots.
Non-atopic bronchial asthma in its manifestations can resemble a common cold disease, so many patients simply do not pay attention to the symptoms of pathology.
Classification of endogenous asthma
Depending on the severity of the disease, the following degrees of endogenous bronchial asthma are distinguished:
- The first is accompanied by attacks of shortness of breath and coughing, which bother the patient no more than 1-2 times a month, is also called intermittent .
- The second is a persistent course of mild bronchial asthma. It is characterized by attacks of suffocation that occur 2-3 times throughout the month.
- The third is a pathology of moderate severity, in which the patient has asthmatic attacks several times a week, disrupting the normal rhythm of life.
- The fourth is considered the most difficult and difficult to treat, accompanied by regular attacks of suffocation, intense coughing, as well as constant insomnia and discomfort.
Also, such a concept as asthmatic status is highlighted – this is a pathological condition in which an asthmatic attack continues for a long time and is not relieved with conventional drugs.
This condition is accompanied by intense swelling of the bronchi, as well as their blockage with thick mucous secretions. As a result, respiratory arrest may occur, which threatens not only health, but also human life.
Features of endogenous asthma
Exogenous bronchial asthma develops against the background of the negative effects of allergic factors – dust, smoke, mold, polluted air, animal hair, pollen, cosmetic or perfume products. Allergies can be caused by the use of certain foods – chocolate, oranges, etc.
Endogenous bronchial asthma, in contrast to the exogenous form, is less treatable, and its consequences are more severe and life-threatening. It develops under the influence of internal factors.
The main symptoms of endogenous bronchial asthma :
- dry, unproductive cough with no or minimal phlegm;
- shortness of breath, choking;
- frequent heartbeat, increased shortness of breath;
- heaviness in the chest area, feeling of lack of air;
- blue discoloration of the skin around the nose and lips, which occurs against the background of oxygen starvation.
With bronchial obstruction, a sick person has difficulty breathing, a dry cough, a deterioration in general well-being, and sleep disturbances.
Patients often complain of weakness, lethargy, frequent headaches and dizziness.
With endogenous bronchial asthma, it is necessary to immediately seek medical help, since without timely and correctly selected treatment, the disease can lead to serious consequences for the human body.
The most effective and informative diagnostic methods:
- General and biochemical blood tests, as well as urinalysis.
- Skin test reaction to detect possible allergens.
- Laboratory examination of sputum obtained during a coughing attack.
To clarify the diagnosis, the doctor may additionally prescribe a special test with aspirin, which will help exclude an allergic reaction to drugs.
For the treatment of endogenous bronchial asthma, it is recommended to consult a doctor immediately after the first symptoms of the disease appear. Treatment for asthma depends on factors such as the frequency and severity of the allergic attacks, and their duration.
Symptoms and treatment of endogenous bronchial asthma depend on its cause. Most often , an integrated approach is used, including the use of drugs, physiotherapy methods, and special therapeutic exercises.
Drug treatment involves the appointment of corticosteroids, drugs with anti-inflammatory action, beta2-agonists, and the use of drugs, the action of which is aimed at eliminating puffiness and improving bronchial conduction. Some of the most effective are drugs containing theophylline, fenoterol, salbutamol , dexamethasone.
In cases where asthma attacks in endogenous bronchial asthma are caused by hormonal disorders, various hormonal medications are used. In order to stop asthmatic attacks, drugs are used in the form of inhalers.
Exercise therapy and spa treatment
Regular sessions of physical therapy and acupressure help normalize the production of bronchial secretions and relieve coughing attacks. A positive result can be obtained from acupuncture, regular exercise of breathing exercises.
In the process of treating endogenous bronchial asthma, it is extremely difficult to achieve remission, since in most cases the patient only has an improvement in the manifestations of the disease. In the most difficult situations, when drug therapy does not bring the expected results, the patient is recommended to carry out a special manipulation, during which the doctor removes the thick mucous secretion accumulated in the cavity of the lungs and bronchial tree.
Spa treatment – a patient undergoes a course of therapy in a specialized medical institution, where he is offered a range of healing procedures aimed at alleviating the symptoms of endogenous bronchial asthma. In addition, rest in specialized sanatoriums is an effective method for preventing exacerbations of respiratory diseases.
Prevention of endogenous asthma
In order to prevent the development of a disease such as endogenous bronchial asthma, several important rules must be followed.
The main ways to prevent the disease:
- do medical gymnastics;
- make up the correct diet in which there are no foods that provoke the development of allergic reactions;
- give up bad habits – smoking and drinking alcohol;
- systematically perform special breathing exercises;
- take daily walks in the fresh air;
- avoid emotional upheaval and stress.
To monitor the development of the disease, the patient must undergo a medical examination and take the necessary tests at least once every 6 months. This will help control the course of endogenous bronchial asthma and prevent the occurrence of severe complications.