One of these disorders is such a pathology as functional dyspepsia. What is she like? What are its manifestations? It is expressed by pain in the abdomen, uncomfortable sensations of heaviness, fullness of the stomach, and nausea.
There are a number of drugs that help get rid of bloating, discomfort, pain, and other digestive disorders.
Causes of Dyspepsia
In some instances, functional dyspepsia goes back to diseases of certain organs of the intestinal tract, for example, peptic ulcer, pancreatitis, or gastritis.
The most obvious symptom of dyspepsia is discomfort and tension in the upper abdomen, which may be accompanied by flatulence, loose stools. Under all this discomfort, the lack of enzymes that are formed in the organs of the intestinal tract is masked.
Causes of Enzyme Lack
One reason is an imbalance in chewing function. As you know, chewing food is the first stage of its digestion already in the mouth with the participation of digestive enzymes. If the particles that are supposed to break down in this case do not have time or fail to split due to other physiological reasons, they can provoke fermentation, excessive development of microorganisms in the large intestine, which causes flatulence and dyspepsia
How to cope with violations in the digestive tract
One of the drugs that is effective in overeating is Mikrasim. Anyone can remember the unpleasant sensations in the stomach after the festive feasts and sensations associated with the consequences of stresses, such as exams, personal dramas, diseases, and similar causes. Moreover, the examination will not show the reason. Moreover, these symptoms can mean the development of dyspepsia. This functional disorder must be treated. And a serious approach to the problem is needed. Medicines have their contraindications, therefore it is impossible to take them without the advice of a doctor on the recommendation of friends.
Dyspepsia is one of the disorders of the gastrointestinal system, which includes a number of symptoms: discomfort, pain in the stomach, a feeling of heaviness in the stomach after eating, sometimes belching, heartburn, nausea and even vomiting are possible.
The definition of dyspepsia syndrome is a generic name used in the initial stages of diagnosis or if a more detailed examination is impossible.
In the course of further clarification, the diagnosis can be qualified as organic dyspepsia with a specific pathology of the gastrointestinal tract, as gastritis, ulcer, and also as functional dyspepsia in the case when a detailed gastroenterological examination failed to find out the true cause of this pathology. It is based on peristaltic disorders of the whole gastrointestinal tract: both the stomach, and exactly the duodenum.
What is functional dyspepsia syndrome?
This is a complex of symptoms that has been observed for about six months within six months and it is not possible to establish a more accurate diagnosis of organic disease. Such a complex of symptoms can be observed in babies from one year of age, as well as in adults. It may include disturbances such as discomfort, a feeling of heaviness, which may have nothing to do with food processes or physical activity, bloating, belching, nausea, aversion to fatty foods, etc. Pain in the abdomen is repeated, and does not disappear after visiting the toilet, in no way associated with a possible violation of the type and frequency of the stool. In this case, there may not be a concomitant pathology.
Age and gender features of pathology
The age limit of the disease is from 17 to 35 years, women are almost twice as susceptible as men.
- Ulcerative. The pain that occurs more often at night usually subsides after taking medications to lower stomach acid or foods. Pain often occurs at a young age, appears suddenly, and can last from several hours to several days and even months.
- Nonspecific option. Different symptoms of functional dyspepsia are combined and the presenter is difficult to identify.
Causes of functional dyspepsia
Today, it was not possible to determine the exact cause of dyspepsia. Presumably, the pathology can be caused by psychogenic factors, disruptions in the motor ability of the digestive tract as a whole, and increased production of hydrochloric acid. With these disorders, the following manifestations can be observed: reflux, a decrease in the reaction of the gastric wall to sprain, a slowdown in the transport of food from the stomach, and Helicobacter infection.
The leading cause of dyspepsia symptoms is determined by impaired motor function of the tract, stomach and duodenum. For example, with the normal functioning of the stomach, the so-called proximal section is able to relax and increase in volume after eating. There is a systematic violation when the rhythm of contractions of the stomach increases or decreases. To a greater or lesser extent, all digestive organs suffer, despite the fact that pain indicates a specific area.
In people suffering from functional dyspepsia, the duodenum malfunctions due to prolonged exposure to acid and impaired body response to lipids.
There is a malfunction in the production of cholecystokinin, which is responsible for regulating the tone and motility of the stomach, the functioning of the gallbladder and pancreas, as well as for regulating the senses of appetite and satiety. If you do not resort to treatment, then this condition will last a long time.
The treatment regimen for established functional dyspepsia
The treatment regimen is quite simple. The very first step is to conduct a survey to exclude pathologies such as ulcers, gastritis and the like.
The next step is treatment under the supervision of a doctor and maintaining a diet for the treatment period.
Features of the course of the disease in children
The incidence of functional dyspepsia in younger patients is due to imperfections in the digestive system. Failure in her work can occur for the most insignificant reasons: slight stress or nervous strain, assumption of error in nutrition. Symptoms in early childhood are detected not only in indigestion, but usually in the intestines, biliary tract, and adjacent digestive organs.
Due to the lack of formation of enzyme systems, various malfunctions in the functioning of the stomach and intestines are observed in children quite often. In younger schoolchildren, periodic pain and cramping in the epigastric region are quite often observed. Often, a detailed examination does not determine any pathology. Digestive disorders in infants up to one year of age are most often associated with a violation of the secretory function of the stomach. Such disorders are accompanied by intestinal colic, regurgitation and pain. In older children, due to impaired motor intestinal function, there is a feeling of overflow, a lump in the abdomen, lack of appetite and discomfort in the stomach.
Therapies for functional dyspepsia
In modern medicine, it is customary to diagnose and treat functional dyspepsia syndrome in two stages. At the first stage, the specialist, based on the results of clinical data and coprology, analysis of blood, feces and ultrasonography, can already with a high degree of accuracy can predict the functional type of the disease and prescribe therapy for a period of 2 to 4 weeks. At the end of the period, the degree of treatment success is determined: if the effect is absent, further gastroenterological examination is necessary in a specialized medical institution.
Therapeutic features of overcoming functional dyspepsia in adults
Therapy is based on data on the pathogenesis of intestinal tract functions. The main areas of therapy are:
- Elimination of the cause that caused the emergence and development of pathology
- Correction of the patient’s neuropsychiatric state
- Therapy of concomitant pathologies that aggravate the course of functional dyspepsia
- Correction of failures of the motor function of the intestinal tract
- Normalization of the autonomic system, tightly associated with the psycho-emotional state
- Prescribing medications from the group of prokinetics and antisecretory, and antacids and neurotropic drugs, pancreatic enzymes.
The Helicobacter bacterium in patients diagnosed with dyspepsia is quite common and causes a focus of inflammation, increased irritability of the peritoneal organs and secretory function. Nevertheless, the presence of a bacterium does not mean that signs of its presence indicate functional dyspepsia. Absolutely, the Helicobacter bacteria is not the cause of GI failure. But it exacerbates its course and, of course, requires compulsory treatment. Dyspepsia associated with the presence of this bacterium is not associated with a violation in general. In the treatment of this disease, bismuth preparations have shown themselves to be good, which are able to suppress microbes, envelop and relieve inflammation. In addition, they start the process of regeneration and protection of the mucosa from damaging factors.
Factors Affecting Types of Therapy
With the dyskinetic form of dyspepsia, disorders appear due to a violation of the movement of food along the gastric tract. Therefore, to overcome the problem, drugs that stimulate motor function are needed. For example, prokinetics stimulate the contraction of the walls of the digestive tract and the advancement of food, and antispasmodics eliminate the spasm, which also prevents the movement of food through the intestines.
Medicines to improve motility are taken half an hour before meals and start motor function even before food enters the esophagus. One of the important points in the treatment of patients with functional dyspepsia is the correction of the consequences of motor disorders, such as failures in the digestion of food and dysbiosis, pancreatic insufficiency due to fluctuations in the pH level and disturbance of the range for normal exposure to enzymes working in the duodenum.
If there is pancreatic insufficiency, it is necessary to prescribe pancreatic enzymes to patients suffering from functional dyspepsia. These enzymatic medications help normalize impaired digestive functions and destroy the vicious circles of the pathogenesis of these dysfunctions and normalize the motility of the stomach and intestines.
With a peptic ulcer-like form of dyspeptic pathology, drugs are prescribed that help to reduce the acidity of gastric juice – antacids, antisecretory medications. Antacids reduce the acidity of existing gastric secretions. Antisecretory affect the amount of gastric juice produced. Antacids are safe to use and are widely used to treat functional dyspepsia.
In the role of an independent therapeutic agent for this violation, the drugs are ineffective, therefore, they are usually used as part of complex therapy. Recent studies on regulating acidity and overcoming the problem of functional dyspepsia have identified low antacid efficacy. In a study using this drug and placebo in improving the condition, the merit of the second is greater.
The most popular medications prescribed by specialists and independently used by patients are Almagel, Rutatsid, Fosfalugel, which reduce the aggression of the acid contained in the gastric juice. This helps to quickly relieve discomfort in the stomach and intestines, including heaviness and heartburn. Antisecretory drugs are not very popular in the treatment of this pathology.
Recently tested with this pathology, Omeprazole has proven to be highly effective in treating dyspepsia. Great treatment results have been shown with ulcer type therapy. Treatment with even one drug Omeprazole had an effect and blocked the development of symptoms of the disease, similar to the eradication therapy of the Helicobacter bacterium. In Russia, omeprazole has undergone a lot of clinical studies and is therefore often used in the treatment of functional dyspepsia.
Excessive acid content in the composition of gastric juice can be closely related to the lack of production of the necessary pancreatic enzyme. As a result of excessive acidification of the duodenum, active enzymes in the pancreas can lose their activity.
If such a pathology is diagnosed, experts consider it appropriate to prescribe an enzyme replacement therapy based on auxiliary preparations of pancreatin. And bismuth preparations are characterized by a complex effect in which the walls of the stomach are covered with a protective film, the production of protective elements, and the resistance of the cells of the gastric mucosa to the acidic environment increase. Medicines in this group not only relieve symptoms, but also affect the cause of their occurrence. Some still often take sodium bicarbonate as antacid, or baking soda, which acts quickly, but also quickly neutralizes. Such self-medication can have unpleasant consequences.
Causes of disorders of the digestive function of the intestines and stomach
- Staying under constant stress leads to a weakening of the digestive system, as well as its ability to produce digestive juices, such as hydrochloric acid. Without it, the secretin substance cannot form and as a result, the production of pancreatic juice is reduced
- Guilty snacks on the run. The problem is that carbohydrates in the absence of thorough chewing are not digested sufficiently. Enzymes in saliva can break down starch to a sufficient degree. Adequate chewing time provides an almost complete assimilation of carbohydrates over a period of a quarter to half an hour after eating.
- Frequent overeating leads to a decrease in the rate of food leaving the stomach
- Food that has undergone significant heat treatment loses its enzymatic activity. Any treatment robs products of their natural enzymes
- Fatty foods block acid production and slow down the process of food evacuation from the stomach, which is why after fatty foods there is a feeling of discomfort and heaviness in the stomach. The higher the calorie content of the food, the slower the stomach empties.
Changing nutrition is one of the basic principles for treating this functional digestive disorder in children and adults. The following principles of diet therapy can be distinguished:
- Diet is mainly determined by the individual tolerance of individual foods. A number of studies have shown that patients with this disorder have difficulty digesting fatty foods.
- The diet must be adjusted. So, you need to eat up to 5-6 times throughout the day. Avoid long breaks, because with a long food break, the gastric secretion begins to stand out actively, the stomach begins muscle contractions. All this causes signs of dyspepsia.
- Serving size is of great importance. Reducing the amount of food eaten at a time, chewing food thoroughly, we send to the stomach exactly the portion of food that it is able to digest. Good grinding and wetting with saliva promotes rapid digestion and eliminates injury to the walls of the esophagus.
- Sparing food. Of great importance is the acceptable temperature of the food. For example, too hot, like cold food, spicy, salty and smoked dishes lead to irritation of the walls of the stomach and provoke dyspepsia attacks. It is permissible to use crackers made of white bread, vegetable soups, boiled or steamed meat (including meatballs), fish, cereals, pasta, soft-boiled eggs, cottage cheese, cheese, yogurt, yogurt, kefir, jelly, boiled vegetables, baked apples and bananas.
- Excluded should be animal fat, smoked meats, strong broths, rich borscht, brown bread, fresh yeast baked goods, soda, radish, coffee and spicy seasonings.
Despite the apparent rigidity of the restrictions, the menu range is still wide enough to receive a varied diet, but not suffer from manifestations of dyspepsia.
In patients, the quality of life is reduced and sensations are comparable to diseases such as inflammation of the intestine, bronchial asthma. During treatment, it is recommended to abandon the habits of smoking and drinking alcohol, which once again irritates the gastric mucosa. There can be many factors influencing the development of pathology. Therefore, during the treatment period, it is recommended to avoid emotional stress, sudden changes in eating habits. A positive effect on the results of treatment is yoga, fitness, swimming, light running and air walks.
Therapy of dyspepsia in children
Treatment of this disease in children causes certain difficulties. According to the child, it is very difficult to determine the specific type of violation. Due to the lack of formation of the organs and systems of the child, any manifestation of dyspepsia in him may affect the functioning of the nervous system.
Digestive tract dysfunction can be accompanied by a headache and a feeling of coma in the chest, increased heart rate. Psycho-emotional disorders can be accompanied by problems with falling asleep, general irritability, mood changes. Preparations must be strictly dosed by age, preferably in those forms that are easy to mix with ordinary food, especially for babies. Sedatives are often included in the general treatment regimen.
Properly selected therapy will allow you to forget about this functional disorder and its symptoms for a long time. Be sure to complete the full course and strict adherence to the recommendations of specialists. The whole process of treating functional dyspepsia is aimed at restoring natural processes in the digestive tract.
Enzymatic medicines help break down food, do not cause unwanted side effects, and do not have any age restrictions. You should choose the most modern forms of enzyme preparations, such as Mikrasim with pancreatin microspheres. It is dispensed in pharmacies without a prescription, has no age restrictions, is allowed even to pregnant women. The limitation in their use is the acute form of pancreatitis and individual intolerance.