Mixed asthma is a respiratory disease caused by exogenous and endogenous factors. It is not easy to cure it, so the therapy should be comprehensive and agreed with the doctor throughout the entire period of treatment. At the same time, it is necessary to carry out the correct preventive measures to reduce the risk of disease.
Internal factors usually include genetic predisposition: changes in the structure of the respiratory tract, increased IgE concentration , gender and ethnicity. The disease can appear in children, adults and the elderly with almost the same probability.
External causes have a more extensive list. Firstly, bronchial asthma is characteristic of allergy sufferers who are very sensitive to certain substances. Medical statistics show that visits due to asthma attacks increase in the spring and summer, when pollen and dust accumulate in the air. Secondly, uncontrolled coughing and choking can occur due to changes in air temperature. Thirdly, bronchial asthma is a common disease of smokers. Tobacco smoke increases the sensitivity of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, which causes the walls to become inflamed and block the access of oxygen.
The following reasons act as triggers of mixed asthma:
- stress, depression, strong emotional experiences;
- chronic inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system or nearby organs;
- inhalation of polluted air.
It is important to recognize the disease in time, since its attacks pose a direct threat to the patient’s life.
The disease can be classified according to the degree of severity:
- Lightweight. Asthmatic attacks are infrequent and do not last long. They practically do not appear during sleep. Respiratory function is slightly reduced and is 80%.
- Average. The attacks are daily, and from time to time sleep is disturbed by severe coughing and shortness of breath. There is a decrease in lung function up to 60%.
- Heavy. Seizures of this type can appear at any time of the day or night, they begin to persist , passing into the chronic stage, and often the patient has to resort to emergency remedies. Respiratory lung function indicators fall below 60%.
Typical signs of asthma at any age are dry cough attacks, choking, and shortness of breath. Due to a lack of oxygen, the patient may have headaches and feel weakness in the body.
At the first signs of bronchial asthma, before treatment, the patient should consult a therapist who is responsible for the initial examination and drawing up the clinical picture. He also conducts listening to the characteristic sounds when inhaling and exhaling.
After that, the doctor writes out directions for research:
- Blood analysis. The presence of inflammation can be justified by the biochemical change in the composition . In particular, allergists note the level of immunoglobulin E, since its increase indicates an allergic reaction.
- Bacteriological culture of sputum. By examining bronchial mucus, infection and resistance of pathogens to antibiotics are detected.
- Study of the function of external respiration. The procedure shows the severity of the airway pathology.
- X-ray. From the picture, doctors determine the spread of inflammation and associated pathologies. For these purposes, bronchographic and bronchoscopic examination is also used.
The course of asthma treatment depends on the diagnosis , so you should not neglect the procedures. Inappropriate therapeutic tactics can delay recovery and even lead to complications of the disease.
Therapy of bronchial asthma of mixed origin consists in the use of medicines and the use of home medicines. It is important to remember that any method must be approved by a doctor and tested for contraindications. Self-medication for asthma is not allowed.
Treatment of the disease is divided into two branches:
The symptomatic method of therapy is to relieve bronchial spasms and release phlegm from the airways. For this, glucocorticosteroids , beta-2-agonists, drugs with theophylline and anticholine -energetics are used. These funds are recommended to be used in the form of inhalation so that the medicinal substances quickly get to the pathological area. Also aerosols can relieve an attack of suffocation.
Systemic treatment consists in the use of long-acting drugs : corticosteroids, anti-inflammatory and, in rare cases, hormonal drugs.
For patients with asthma, doctors recommend doing special breathing exercises. In addition, one should not forget about physiotherapy exercises: physical activity helps to remove toxins from the body and speeds up metabolism.
For diseases of the respiratory tract, traditional medicine advises the use of decoctions and infusions of medicinal herbs: chamomile, sage, rose hips, nettle, mint, thigh- sludge. They make healthy fortified tea. The infusion on pine buds is especially effective, it has antiseptic and analgesic effects. A mixture of aloe and mustard juice also helps relieve symptoms .
Often, mixed genesis asthma leads to disability. Nevertheless, if the prescribed course of treatment is followed, the disease can go into a prolonged stage of remission. Thus, the forecast can be quite positive with the right approach.
To avoid the appearance of mixed asthma, you need to minimize the harmful effects of exogenous and endogenous factors:
- The living quarters should be kept clean. If there is a thick layer of dust on the shelves, then the chance of developing bronchial asthma increases significantly.
- You need to lead a healthy lifestyle. Smoking, alcohol abuse and unhealthy diet negatively affect immunity.
- You can’t take your medicine thoughtlessly. Medication causes severe suffocation if the patient is allergic to the ingredients. Also, some of them can provoke bronchospasm.
- It is important to treat diseases on time. Chronization of pathologies seriously impairs immunity and increases the risk of concomitant diseases.
Bronchial asthma often occurs in children, so adults need to monitor the child’s condition so as not to miss the beginning of its development. The earlier treatment is started, the easier it is to control the disease.
In the respiratory system, asthma can cause pulmonary emphysema , pneumosclerosis, and chronic pulmonary heart disease, where the right side of the muscle increases in size. Breathing problems affect the central nervous system, as lack of oxygen affects the cells’ ability to function normally. As a result, the patient begins to have problems with other systems: the digestive and cardiovascular.
Mixed asthma is dangerous for humans because it causes serious complications. However, with proper and timely treatment, the disease can be brought under control and the risk of exacerbations and negative consequences can be significantly reduced. To do this, the patient should be diagnosed on time and follow all the doctor’s recommendations.
Serious lung disease, especially chronic disease, is often accompanied by a decrease in airway patency. At the same time, the patient feels shortness of breath, heaviness in the chest and lack of air. Such a violation of the respiratory function can lead to the development of hypoxemia – a pathology characterized by a deficiency of oxygen in the blood, and even to cardiac arrest. In order to avoid dangerous complications, for such ailments, long-acting bronchodilators are used , one of which is the drug Teotard (manufacturer – Slovenia).
One of the indications for the use of the drug is broncho – obstructive syndrome. It is accompanied by acute respiratory failure caused by a decrease in the patency of the bronchial tree. In asthma, this disorder occurs as a result of hyperactivity of the respiratory organs against the background of contact with irritants and allergens. The drug is used for various types of diseases – allergic, infectious-dependent, as well as for exercise asthma.
It is also recommended to use Teotard for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease – a disease in which a progressive inflammatory process affects all elements of the lung tissue, causing irreversible changes. Restricted airflow makes breathing difficult.
Another disease for which the drug is indicated is pulmonary emphysema. Due to a decrease in tissue elasticity, their airiness increases, while the walls of the alveoli (bubbles in which gas exchange occurs) and bronchioles (terminal branches of the bronchial tree) are destroyed.
The drug is also used in the treatment of the following pathologies:
- Edema syndrome in kidney disease. In this condition, a protein-rich fluid accumulates in the tissues of the organs. Because of this, changes in their physical properties can occur, which leads to a number of negative processes.
- Pulmonary hypertension. The disease, which tends to progress, is characterized by high pressure in the vessels of the lung. It is preceded by a thickening of the cell layer lining the walls of the capillaries and blood vessels. The patient feels dizzy, chest pain and shortness of breath.
- Pulmonary heart. Pathology develops against the background of pulmonary hypertension. Persistent high pressure in the vessels of the lungs causes an increase in the load on the right ventricle. Changes occur in it, leading to a violation of cardiac activity.
An indication for medication treatment is also regularly occurring respiratory arrest, which are observed during sleep and last at least 10 seconds. Pathology is caused by relaxation of the tissues of the larynx.
The medication is not recommended for use when:
- exacerbation of peptic ulcer;
- hemorrhagic stroke;
- inflammation of the stomach walls as a result of a high concentration of hydrochloric acid;
- recent gastrointestinal bleeding;
- severe hypertension;
- sensitivity to xanthine and its derivatives;
- heart palpitations with irregular contractions ( tachyarrhythmias );
- bleeding into retinal tissue;
- the patient’s age up to 6 years;
- intolerance to the components of the drug.
The components of the drug are able to overcome the placental barrier and enter milk during lactation. The decision to use a bronchodilator during pregnancy and lactation should be made by a doctor taking into account the patient’s condition and an assessment of possible risks. When taking the drug, care must be taken if the patient suffers from impaired coronary blood flow, chronic arterial damage, heart failure or myocardial pathology, accompanied by a thickening of the ventricular wall. The use of the drug in patients with increased convulsive readiness, dysfunction of the thyroid gland, and prostate adenoma requires special attention.
The active ingredient of the drug is theophylline. This organic compound is found in the leaves of the tea bush. The substance is also synthesized by the human liver during the metabolism of caffeine. Analogues of the drug that have the same active ingredient are Theophylline, Retafil , Theobiolong , Slow-bid , Diffumal 24. Medicines such as Diprofillin , Euphyllin and Theobromine have a similar effect .
The auxiliary components of the preparation are: ammonium methacrylate copolymer type B, anhydrous silica, low molecular weight polyvinylpyrrolidone dibutyl phthalate , talc, gelatin and dyes E 171, E 132 and E 104.
The drug has only one form of release – capsules, which are sometimes mistakenly called Teotard tablets . They may contain 0.35 g or 0.2 g of the active ingredient. They are packed in blister packs of 10 pieces. The outer container is a cardboard box containing 4 blisters.
Mechanism of action
The bronchodilator effect of the drug is based on a decrease in the tone of the smooth muscles of the airways, as a result of which bronchospasm is relieved. Due to the property of inhibiting allergy mediators, Teotard helps to stop the development of allergic reactions.
The medication improves ventilation of the lungs, dilates blood vessels, increases the contractility of the heart muscle, and stimulates the work of the heart. The tool prevents platelet aggregation, has a diuretic property, increases blood flow in the kidneys. The effect of taking the drug develops gradually, so it is not used in acute conditions. The required concentration of the active substance is maintained for 12 hours after ingestion.
Instructions for use
The calculation of the dosage and the determination of the duration of the course are made by the doctor on an individual basis. Start with small doses. If the patient tolerates the drug well, the dose is gradually increased (by a quarter every 2–3 days).
The drug capsules should be taken in the morning and evening. They are drunk whole with water.
The instructions for use state that the medication can cause negative reactions, the frequency and severity of which depends on the concentration of the active substance. From the side of the heart and blood vessels, pain, heart rhythm disturbances, and a decrease in blood pressure may occur. Due to the effect of the drug on the nervous system, headaches, dizziness, sleep problems, tremors of body parts are sometimes observed. Allergic reactions are manifested in the form of fever, rashes and itching.
Negative reactions from the digestive organs while taking the drug – heartburn, nausea, vomiting, pain in the abdominal region, diarrhea, inflammation of the walls of the esophagus under the influence of acidic stomach contents. When using a medicine for an ulcer, an exacerbation of the disease is possible.
Prolonged use of the medication can lead to a decrease in appetite. Other side effects include rapid breathing, the appearance of blood and protein in the urine, a decrease in plasma glucose concentration, an increase in urine volume, and excessive sweating.
The drug Teotard has a bronchodilator effect, which is due to the property of the active substance to relax the muscles of the bronchial tree. The medication is widely used in the treatment of ailments accompanied by shortness of breath and suffocation. The drug has a list of contraindications and can cause negative reactions, therefore it is dispensed only with a doctor’s prescription.