Bronchial asthma is one of the three most common diseases of the human respiratory system. The disease is characterized by an acute course and vivid symptoms that can deliver a person a lot of unpleasant minutes. Even overcoming the crisis does not guarantee a complete recovery of the body due to the intense negative impact on the body of all its manifestations.
As a result, the functionality of individual organs and systems is sharply reduced. Therefore, rehabilitation for bronchial asthma is one of the most important stages of complex therapy aimed at neutralizing any signs of the disease and maintaining the functionality of the body.
Briefly about the disease
Bronchial asthma is one of the most dangerous diseases of the human respiratory system, which has an inflammatory and chronic nature. Many factors can provoke the development of the disease, among which the following occupy a special place:
- exposure to allergens;
- infectious provocateurs;
- mechanical stress and chemicals;
- climatic conditions;
- psychological overload.
These factors play a leading role in the list of possible causes of the onset and further development of bronchial asthma. Each of them is capable of provoking an exacerbation and lead to a rapid deterioration in well-being. The main feature of the disease is the severity and variety of symptoms, which consists of the following manifestations:
- a feeling of congestion in the chest;
- inability to inhale fully;
- pain and tightness in the chest area;
- wheezing when inhaling and exhaling.
All these signs are complex and develop almost instantly in the form of an asthmatic attack, which has serious consequences up to loss of consciousness. In addition, the disease provokes changes in many organs and systems, affecting their functionality. Therefore, rehabilitation measures for bronchial asthma play an important role and are aimed at restoring the full functioning of the body.
The main stages and methods of rehabilitation for bronchial asthma
Rehabilitation of patients with bronchial asthma consists in the use of complex restorative techniques, the task of which is to neutralize and completely overcome all the negative consequences of the disease.
Also, the goals of preventive measures include the restoration of body functions and the prevention of recurrent events. To achieve these goals, the following methods are used:
- special diet;
- drug rehabilitation;
- strengthening of immunity.
In addition to the above methods of restoring the body, it is permissible to use other methods. Depending on the initial state and the severity of the disease, climatotherapy, correction of the psychoemotional state, and relaxing massage are used.
Rehabilitation for asthma includes adjusting the patient’s diet. Eating certain foods increases the risk of developing allergic reactions, which is one of the factors in asthma. In addition, the consumption of too fatty and high-calorie foods leads to an increase in the load on the gastrointestinal tract, reducing the overall resistance of the body.
The special diet is based on the principles of a healthy diet with minor differences due to the specificity of the disease. In general, the correction of the diet for asthma is as follows:
- Fractional food. It is necessary to take food in small portions every 3-4 hours. Such a step makes it possible not to overload the body, systematically providing it with the necessary amount of calories for full-fledged work.
- Elimination of food that creates an allergenic load on the body. The list of such products is quite extensive. However, it is necessary to limit the use of only those that pose a danger in a particular case. It is possible to identify a certain type of dangerous allergens by conducting special tests.
- Limiting the use of harmful products. Canned food, fatty, overly salty and fried foods, snacks, alcoholic beverages, mayonnaise and hot sauces – the use of such food has a serious burden on the body, so it must be avoided.
- Eat fewer foods containing simple carbohydrates (bread, baked goods, pasta) and saturated fatty acids (pork, lard, butter). It is these substances that are most difficult to digest, and some of them are deposited in the form of fatty deposits.
- Drink 1.5-2 liters of clean non-carbonated water daily. It participates in all physiological processes of the body, renewing cells and removing metabolic products from them.
- Use in food more greens, fresh fruits and berries (only those types that are not prohibited). Their use enables the body to receive the necessary minerals and vitamins that are absent in other foods.
Proper nutrition is the key to successfully overcoming the crisis and speedy recovery of all systems, the functionality of which has been disrupted as a result of asthmatic attacks.
The use of medications is an integral part of the comprehensive treatment of bronchial asthma. Their action is aimed at reducing inflammatory changes in tissues and neutralizing the spasm that occurs in the bronchi at the time of an attack.
Depending on the severity of the disease and the main factors contributing to its development, the selection of the components of therapy is carried out. Medication may include the use of the following drugs:
- bronchodilators ;
- mucolytics ;
- antibacterial drugs;
The use of each of these means is aimed at achieving a specific result. Bronchodilators are used to reduce spasm and widen the lumen of the bronchi. Mucolytics promote the passage and excretion of phlegm from the respiratory tract. Antibacterial agents are designed to reduce inflammation and prevent infection.
Antiallergic drugs block the body’s immune response to allergens. Sedatives are used to correct the psycho-emotional background. Corticosteroids are used to relieve inflammation and reduce bronchial edema.
Important! The choice of specific treatment methods and their main components is the prerogative of the attending physician. It is he who, on the basis of the available clinical picture and research results, selects the safest, but at the same time effective therapy. At the same time, self-medication and uncontrolled use of medications are strictly prohibited.
Physiotherapy exercises an important place in the rehabilitation of bronchial asthma, as it promotes the development of respiratory muscles, strengthening the lung tissue, and removing secretions from the bronchi. However, not all types of physical exercise are permissible, since excessive loads can lead to exactly the opposite result and provoke an attack.
Therefore, it is necessary to approach exercise therapy with the mind and not overdo it. With the correct conduct of all exercises, physiotherapy exercises makes it possible to achieve the following results:
- strengthen the diaphragm;
- relax the nervous system;
- increase the level of endurance of the body;
- improve blood supply to tissues and muscles;
- increase the speed of metabolic processes.
One of the most effective methods of physiotherapy exercises is breathing exercises. The use of such exercises allows you to strengthen the muscles of the chest (in particular the diaphragm), and also helps to cleanse the bronchi from the phlegm accumulated in them.
Physiotherapy is one of the rehabilitation methods designed to speed up the restoration of the functions of the respiratory system. An additional task of physiotherapy is to reduce the level of inflammatory processes, tissue swelling and increase the rate of sputum discharge. Many techniques are used to achieve these goals, but the following are considered the most effective:
- cardiotonic effect;
- wave influence.
All these techniques occupy a significant place in the structure of rehabilitation procedures and are successfully used to neutralize the effects of asthma. However, massage is the most popular and effective method of physiotherapy.
It is he who can significantly reduce the recovery time by improving blood circulation in the tissues. In addition, tapping and rubbing can increase the rate of sputum discharge, and reduce the negative effects of the disease on the respiratory system.
In most cases, the development of asthma is a consequence of the body’s immune response to a particular stimulus. As a result of a failure in the work of protective systems, a conflict arises, which is expressed in the form of asthmatic manifestations.
Based on this, strengthening the immune system is a necessary part of rehabilitation procedures designed to restore balance in the body. The following remedies are used to improve the general physical condition:
- walks in the open air;
- moderate hardening;
- physical education;
- increased motor activity;
- proper nutrition;
- rejection of bad habits.
Compliance with each of these points allows not only to speed up the rehabilitation period, but also to significantly strengthen the body. As a result of the systematic application of such techniques in practice, endurance increases, all types of muscles are strengthened, and the functioning of the respiratory system improves. The depth of inspiration increases, the muscles of the diaphragm become stronger, which in itself leads to an accelerated discharge of sputum and a decrease in the risk of developing an attack.
Procedure for taking rehabilitation measures
Rehabilitation measures are complex and consist of several equivalent directions. Moreover, their structure and components are determined exclusively by the attending physician, who will be able to arrange them optimally and without risk to the patient’s health. The order of performing activities is as follows:
- Eliminate all types of allergens at the patient’s permanent location.
- Eliminate the impact of emotional and psychological stimuli.
- Gradually, so as not to cause stress, switch to the necessary diet, removing prohibited foods from the diet and balancing it.
- After getting used to the new diet for 1-2 weeks, introduce exercise therapy into the daily routine.
- After 1-2 weeks, add other rehabilitation methods such as massage, climatotherapy or electrophoresis.
- Add breathing exercises, as well as monitor inhalation and exhalation while doing any kind of gymnastics.
Using a similar structure of classes, it will not be difficult to minimize the effects of asthma on the body. When introducing new exercises and techniques, it is necessary to take a short break to allow the body to get used to new conditions and not provoke the development of an exacerbation.
Features of the rehabilitation of children with asthma (general information)
Rehabilitation of children with bronchial asthma is an important part of complex therapy, since the child’s body is able to overcome the disease. Due to age characteristics, damaged structures are quickly regenerated, which makes it possible to talk about a full recovery.
The only problem in the treatment and rehabilitation of children is the lack of formation of the immune system. Often, due to the instability of protective systems, recurrent phenomena occur or new allergic reactions develop. Therefore, most of the recovery procedures require complete dedication from the parents of the baby.
Exercising, massage, medication or physiotherapy should be done under adult supervision and participation. The constant implementation of the procedures and the moral support of the child make it possible not only to defeat asthma much faster, but also to completely restore the body.
General rules of rehabilitation
Rehabilitation for bronchial asthma includes several rules, following which allows you to neutralize its negative consequences faster. They look like this:
- adherence to a constant diet;
- continuity of treatment, even if the symptoms of the disease have completely disappeared;
- rejection of bad habits that contribute to the suppression of the body’s defenses;
- adherence to terms and dosages when taking medications.
The implementation of these simple rules allows you to significantly speed up recovery and makes it possible to almost completely eliminate the development of exacerbations. Asthma is a serious disease, which is not so easy to get rid of, and its consequences will remind of themselves for a long time. However, with timely treatment and high-quality rehabilitation, it is possible to defeat it, as well as completely restore the body.