Medication for asthma: what drugs should I take?
Bronchial asthma currently occurs quite often. When the disease suffers, the quality of life of the patient. The danger of such a disease also lies in the fact that the lack of adequate therapy can lead to fatal outcomes in children and adults.
With the current level of development of medicine, this disease is not completely curable, but it is possible to slow down and stop the disease by selecting highly effective treatment.
What drugs should be used in each case - depends on many factors, but there are certain rules. Therapy of bronchial asthma should be:
- Combine all existing ways to fight the disease.
Non-drug treatment includes the following range of activities:
- maintaining the right way of life: giving up smoking, reducing body weight;
- elimination of external factors provoking exacerbation of the disease - change of workplace, climatic zone, air humidification in the dormitory, elimination of allergens;
- training of patients in special schools, where they are explained how to properly use inhalers, assess their condition, and stop an easy attack;
- constant monitoring of your well-being in dynamics;
- LFK and respiratory gymnastics.
Drug therapy is aimed at:
- reduction in the number of exacerbations of the disease;
- an obstacle to the development of complications (asthmatic status);
- improvement of the function of external respiration;
- achievement of a stable remission.
Treatment of bronchial asthma is carried out with the help of 2 groups of drugs:
- Basic - the main drugs, whose action is aimed at reducing inflammation in the bronchi and enlarging their lumen.
- Emergency aids that ease the condition during an attack.
The medicine for bronchial asthma agents can be prescribed in inhalation, tablet, injection form. Take them every day, regardless of the patient's state of health. Combinations of drugs are different in each individual case and are prescribed taking into account the severity of the underlying disease.
Administration of medicines
Preparations for bronchial asthma are prescribed in accordance with the modern classification.
At the heart of the division, according to the national clinical recommendations, is the frequency of day and night symptoms during the week and day, the frequency of bronchodilator drugs of short duration.
Based on the summation of these data, 4 stages of severity of asthma flow are distinguished:
- I step is the easiest. It does not require the appointment of basic therapy. Short-acting drugs are used to stop seizures that occur rarely.
- In the second stage, inhalation hormones are used as the main therapy. If they are ineffective, they show cromons or theophyllines.
- When a third stage is exposed in diagnosis, combinations of drugs from hormones and long-acting bronchodilators are used.
- IV - the most severe form of bronchial asthma. Requires the appointment of inhalation and tablet forms of hormones. The most commonly combined groups of drugs are: glucocorticosteroids + long-acting bronchodilators + theophylline.
Basic drugs for basic therapy
The list of the main groups of medicines for basic therapy of bronchial asthma:
- Hormones (glucocorticosteroids).
- β2-adrenomimetics of long-acting.
- Combined preparations.
Glucocorticosteroids (GCS) - hormonal drugs for the treatment of bronchial asthma. This is the "gold standard" for the treatment of patients with bronchial asthma, starting with the second stage. The mechanism of their action is aimed at arresting the main process of inflammation in the bronchi leading to the development of this disease.
As a result of inhalation with the use of hormonal drugs, the risk of side effects and complications with prolonged use is significantly reduced than in the case of taking tablet forms. This is due to the local mode of administration. The main plus of inhaled glucocorticosteroids is that they accumulate in the respiratory tract, due to which they have a permanent effect. Among the side effects - the most frequent candidiasis of the cavity as a result of their long use.
The most commonly assigned are:
- Pulmicort (possible appointment with 6-month-old age);
- Beklazone IVF;
- Fliksotid (shown to children from 1 year old);
New preparations of this kind - Tsikortid Cyclocaps, Budiir.
The pulmicort is available as a suspension for inhalation. To use it you need to have a special device - a nebulizer, which splits and sprays the medicine. The patient inhales steam with the active drug through a special mask.
Beklazone IVF is a ready-made inhaler. Allowed to use from 4 years. When applying Fliksotid use a spacer - an intermediate chamber between the can and the hole through which the aerosol enters the mouth, and then into the bronchi.
Budesonide is available in the form of a powder for inhalation. Inhalation of it occurs with the help of a special inhaler - isehieiler. In this case, the ease with which it is applied is a great advantage. The patient simply inhales and the substance is delivered to the respiratory tract.
Of the tableted forms of glucocorticosteroids are prescribed:
The dosage and the course of admission are selected by the doctor followed by a gradual cancellation of the drug. Assign them in the severe course of bronchial asthma as an adjunct to inhaled glucocorticosteroids.
Preparations of the group of kramons are prescribed in case of detection of individual intolerance to hormones. Their anti-inflammatory effect is much less, and therefore they are used as second-line drugs. They include Intal, Tileed Mint. Produced in the form of ready-made inhalers. Tileed Mint is admitted to the appointment from 2 years.
β2 - long-acting adrenomimetics have a bronchodilating effect, improving the breathing of patients. They include:
- Oxyx Turbuhaler.
The first 2 drugs are available in the form of ready-made metered aerosols. Oxus Turbuhaler is a powder inhaler. The active substance is inhaled by means of a special device - turbuhaler. The advantage of it is that it eliminates usage errors. The patient simply inhales air with powder.
Theophylline long-acting has a bronchodilator effect by reducing bronchospasm, improving the flow of oxygen to the lungs. Produced in the form of tablets. The most commonly used are Teopek, Theotard. Operate within 12 hours. Well prevent the occurrence of nocturnal and early morning bouts.
Antileukotrienovye substances are used for bronchial asthma of allergic origin. They have an anti-inflammatory effect.
Appointed also with aspirin asthma, the occurrence of seizures with physical effort in children. Produced in tablet form. This group of drugs includes Acolate.
Recently, widely used drugs that have in their composition several active substances. In the treatment of bronchial asthma, such drugs are prescribed often. In this case, one drug has a bronchodilator and anti-inflammatory effects, which is a significant plus.
The most commonly combined hormones and β2-adrenomimetics. Names of the most commonly taken medications:
- Seredid multidisk;
- Symbicort Turbuhaler;
They are powder inhalers. The difference is in different combinations of active substances and indications for use. Symbicort Turbuhaler can also be used as a first aid for the development of an attack.
Evaluation of the effectiveness of the therapy
Basic therapy of bronchial asthma does not lead to a complete cure.
Its tasks are:
- prevention of frequent seizures;
- improvement in the evaluation of the function of external respiration;
- reduction in the frequency of short-acting drugs.
The basic course is carried out periodically throughout the life course, with adjustments to the drugs and their doses under the strict supervision of the physician. Drugs in this case, as a rule, do not use to stop the attacks of asthma in bronchial asthma.
Dynamic monitoring of the patient is carried out every 3 months. In doing so, evaluate:
- clinical picture (complaints);
- number of calls;
- frequency of calls for emergency medical care;
- daily activity;
- the need for short-acting drugs;
- improvement of the function of external respiration;
- adverse reactions in the use of asthma medications.
If the treatment is ineffective, dose adjustments are made, and the prescribed therapy is strengthened.
However, the doctor must ensure that all patients follow the instructions and use the medicines correctly. Often, a poor response to adequate therapy is the patient's ignorance of how to administer aerosol inhalations.
Emergency medications for an attack
What medications should be taken to treat asthma in an emergency, both patients and their loved ones should know, in order to help as quickly as possible during the attack. To stop this condition, short-acting drugs are prescribed. Their effect occurs immediately after inhalation. At the same time they have a pronounced bronchodilator effect, making the patient feel better.
List of essential drugs for emergency care:
Bronchodilator preparations for asthma are used as a first aid and in basic therapy.
Salbutamol is available only as a ready-made aerosol inhaler. This drug can be taken several times in a row with an interval of 10-15 minutes with incomplete arrest of the attack.
Berotek, Atrovent, Berodual may have the form of a solution for inhalation. At the same time, nebulizers are used. The advantage of this method of treatment is the duration of inhalation. It lasts for 15-20 minutes, while the patient sits and breathes through the mask, and the active substances most effectively have their therapeutic effect.
Berodual is a combined preparation, which increases the frequency of its appointment.
To stop the attack of asthma, powder inhalers of long-acting action can also be used:
- Oxys Turbuhaler;
- Symbicort Turbuhaler.
The use of certain medications to stop an attack of bronchial asthma should not be accidental, the decision on their effectiveness and safety can only be made by the attending physician.
With an average and severe asthma attack, it is necessary to call an ambulance as soon as possible, because with ineffectiveness of conducted inhalations, asthmatic status, which is dangerous for a patient's life, can develop.
Dosage, frequency of admission, the particular application of a medication for asthma should be agreed with the attending physician! Self-medication can lead to sad consequences. Bronchial asthma can not be cured, but the prerogative of modern medicine is the appointment of adequate basic therapy to control the disease. At the same time, the patient's condition does not deteriorate and his quality of life remains.