Asthma has been known to mankind for a long time, since the days of ancient Greece, when this disease was called simply: asphyxiation.Why it arises and how to deal with it, says Passion.ru.
Since the days of Hippocrates, of course, much has changed.Today, asthma is correctly diagnosed, easily classified and successfully treated.Here are just cases of the disease does not become less: according to international statistics, about 6% of the world’s population suffer from this pathology.Let’s talk in detail about one of its varieties.Atopic bronchial asthma, in other words, non-infectious- allergic, occurs in 15% of cases and is caused by contact with allergensnon-infectious nature.
Causes of atopic asthma
Firstly, a lot depends on genetic predisposition.For example, if someone from parents or relatives suffers from asthma, it is possible with 40 % probability to suggest the development of this disease in a child.
Secondly, there are allergens, when meeting an immediate type allergic reaction in the body, this means that very little time passes from the moment of inhalation contact with the allergen to the onset of the first symptoms of bronchial asthma.In the role of such allergens can be a variety of substances: wood, household or medicinal dust , animal hair, plant pollen , spores of fungi, ticks, and so on.
Thirdly, we must not forget about the factors that greatly contribute to the development of bronchial asthma.This is a bad environment , smoking, long-term use of certain drugs, frequent infectious diseases that weaken the immune system.
What are the different types of atopic asthma?
Depending on the allergen, distinguish the main types of atopic asthma.
Household, or dust – the most common type of asthma.It usually develops with the onset of the heating season, but given the very diverse composition of house dust, asthma symptoms can occur year-round.This type of asthma is characterized by a rapid improvement in the patient’s state of health when he leaves home and the symptoms of suffocation return on return.
Fungal atopic bronchial asthma _, _ the seasonality of which depends on the period of sporulation in the pathogenic fungi that caused it.The concentration of the spores of many of them increases in the second half of the day, towards the evening, so attacks often occur at night.
Spinal asthma usually proceeds easily.As soon as the ambient air is increased pollen concentration in people prone to allergies n Appears symptoms of conjunctivitis and rhinitis, then the picture of the actual asthma.Often the symptoms of pollen asthma develop when eating foods that are related to a particular pollen, and this can occur at any time of the year.For example, if you are allergic to nut pollen, it is enough to eat a few nuts, and after eating fresh pastries, you can provoke symptoms of an allergy to pollen of cereals.
Epidermal Atopic bronchial asthma is triggered by wool and skin derivatives of various animals. It is relatively rare compared with other types of asthma and in most cases is an occupational disease of livestock breeders and research laboratories staff . From pets , cats most often become carriers of allergens, since their wool and saliva have powerful allergenic activity.
Symptoms of atopic bronchial asthma
Symptoms usually appear for the first time at the age of 10 years.It is believed that boys are more susceptible to this disease.
The doctor examining the patient will inquire about the presence of exudative diathesis, eczema, dermatitis, or cases of food or drug allergy in the child , since these diseases are usually accompanied by atopic bronchial asthma.
In addition, in 50% of cases, asthma develops against the background of respiratory
diseases, with the first symptoms of suffocation occur at the height of the infectious process and are accompanied by sneezing, nasal congestion and runny nose.
Suffering attacks themselves usually occur at night, often preceded by itchy nose and urticaria, and they end either on their own, quickly enough, or are easily removed by appropriate medication prescribed by the doctor.Sometimes at the end of an attack, the patient coughs with a small amount of clear sputum.
Infrequently, but still possible the development of an allergic reactionof the delayed type, when after contact with an allergen it lasts from 4 to 12 hours, and the symptoms of suffocation last up to two days, even against the background of the use of bronchodilators .
In the first years of the disease, periods without seizures are long, but over time, if there is no adequate treatment and with frequent contact with allergens, remission is shortened and late complications may occur.The most difficult to treat are forms of atopic bronchial asthma, caused by several heterogeneous allergens.
The earlier the treatment is started, the more stable the patient’s condition will be.Depending on the frequency and intensity of attacks, there are four stages of the process:
- Easy intermittent stage – seizures do not occur more often than once a week, and within a month no more than two night attacks occur;
- Easy persistent – seizures occur more often than once a week, but not more than once a day. Night suffocation can take place more often two once a month ;
- Middle stage – seizures overtake the patient almost daily, disturbing sleep and reducing physical activity;
- Severe stage – asthma constantly reminds of itself, attacks occur more often three times a day.
The condition of a patient who is in the so-called “asthmatic status”, when breathing is practically impossible and medicines do not bring relief , is considered extremely serious .
Treatment of atopic bronchial asthma
An experienced doctor will prescribe a comprehensive treatment that includes elimination therapy, specific desensitization and drug therapy.
Elimination therapy consists of avoiding contact with the allergen. In some cases, a change of work is necessary if the disease is associated with the conditions and specifics of labor, the removal of animals from the dwelling, a special antifungal treatment of housing, the elimination of feather pillows and feather blankets from everyday life , regular wet cleaning, and an adjusted diet with the exception of allergenic products. Specific desensitization is usually advisable when it is impossible to completely eliminate contact with the allergen. In such cases, using histaglobulin , Intal , ephedrine.
Drug therapy is prescribed based on the stage of the process.In the acute period, desensitizing and anti-inflammatory drugs are used, as well as bronchodilators .In the process of remitting the process and in remission, immunocorrective drugs are used.The question of prescribing antibacterial drugs requires careful medical supervision, since some antibiotics can also act as allergens.
A very good effect have a variety of physiotherapy, exercise therapy, reflexology, as well as spa treatment.
Atopic bronchial asthma in pregnant women
It is very important to understand that today asthma is not a contraindication to the birth of children .This disease cannot be cured, but it is very possible to keep it under control, maintaining its health.
Interestingly, asthma in pregnant women occurs in different ways: patients may notice both improvement in their condition and deterioration, and some do not notice any changes at all.By the way, only 14% of expectant mothers begin to feel better about themselves, but the rest can successfully control their condition.
The greatest risk carries a lack of oxygen in the blood – hypoxia, which can interfere with the normal development of the fetus .But the problem is solved, it is only necessary to comply with all the recommendations of the doctor and maintain their condition in the norm.The prognosis for babies whose mothers clearly controlled their disease is no different from what is generally accepted for all newborns.Therefore, the best option is to consult a doctor already at the planning stage of pregnancy, and then everything will be in perfect order.