Bronchial asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases of the respiratory system. The essence of this pathological process is that a chronic inflammatory reaction is formed in the wall of the bronchi that is not associated with the infectious flora. Due to such inflammation, the bronchi are in a hyper-reactive state and are subject to obstruction after contact with an allergen or some other irritating factor. The most severe complication of this pathology is asthmatic status. It is the asthmatic status that can be fatal.
The study of asthma has been going on since the time of Hippocrates. However, it was only in the middle of the eighteenth century that the disease was isolated as a separate nosological unit. At the beginning of the twentieth century, it was suggested that allergic reactions play a role in the development of this pathology. In nineteen sixty-ninth year, Soviet scientists proposed a classification based on the causes of bronchial obstruction.
Currently, such a disease is extremely widespread among the population. According to various sources, from four to ten percent of people all over the world suffer from it. It is worth noting that although this pathological process is most often formed in childhood, it can also occur in adults.According to statistics, about fifty percent of cases are diagnosed in children under the age of ten years. Another thirty percent falls in the age range from ten to forty years. Interestingly, among children with this disease, boys are almost twice as likely to encounter. By the age of thirty this figure is leveled.
As we have said, the leading pathogenetic moment bronchial asthma is a sudden narrowing of the lumen of the bronchi, called obstruction. Due to the fact that in the wall of the bronchi the chronic inflammatory reaction is present, it thickens and swells. In parallel, there is an increased production of thick and viscous mucus in their lumen. Edema and mucus, in turn, impede the passage of air. In addition, upon contact with allergens or other irritating factors, the smooth muscles of the bronchi spasm , which leads to even greater depression of the respiratory function.
Most often, asthma is associated with allergens. At the same time, a variety of environmental factors can act as allergens. The most common of these are house dust, pollen, household chemicals, food, and drugs. Sometimes an allergic reaction can form when an infectious flora enters the body.
In the case of a non-allergic form of the disease, bronchial obstruction can be associated with smoking, exercise, air pollution, increased humidity, various hormonal disorders, and many other factors.
Classification of bronchial asthma
Bronchial asthma, as we have said, is allergic and non-allergic. In addition, separately isolated and unspecified forms. In the mixed form, both allergic and non-allergic components are involved in the occurrence of obstruction.
The classification of this disease includes four degrees of severity. In the first degree, seizures occur less than once a week. The second degree is characterized by weekly, but not daily bouts. The third degree is established if dyspnea appears every day during the daytime, and at night – more than once a week. In the fourth degree, seizures are permanent both in the daytime and at night.
Symptoms that indicate bronchial asthma
The main symptom of this disease is shortness of breath. In some cases, its occurrence is preceded by precursors, which include sneezing and chest discomfort. During the height of the sick man complains that he can not breathe. It is worth noting that with this pathology it is difficult to exhale.
With an attack of dyspnea, symptoms such as wheezing, intense cough, in which a small amount of thick sputum, cyanosis of the nasolabial triangle and puffiness of the face. In order to facilitate breathing, the patient sits down and tilts the body forward. The degree of difficulty breathing is directly dependent on the severity of the attack.
The duration of each individual patient is different. It ends with a gradual restoration of respiratory function, sputum discharge and wheezing.
As we have said, the most formidable complication of this pathological process is asthmatic status. When it all the above symptoms are much more intense and occur much more often.
Diagnosis and treatment of the disease
Diagnosis of this disease initially consists of complaints of a sick person. Additionally, both laboratory and instrumental methods are used. Laboratory methods include general and biochemical blood tests, as well as the study of the immune status. In addition, peak flowmetry and spirometryare conducted , aimed at assessing the degree of violations. Additionally, allergy tests can be prescribed.
In order to stop an attack of bronchial asthma, inhaled beta adrenomimetics are used . M- holinolitiki also have an expanding effect on the bronchi, due to which respiration is restored. Xanthines , Cromones and inhaled glucocorticosteroids can be administered . It is worth noting that hormones are used only in severe conditions. In order to improve the discharge of sputum shown drugs with mucolytic effect.
Principles of prevention
For prophylaxis New seizures should avoid contact with substances that have an allergic reaction, stop smoking, and also sanitize existing chronic infectious foci in a timely manner.