Bronchospastic syndrome occurs in various diseases, it can be paroxysmal or chronic.
Etiology of bronchospastic syndrome diverse and presented in the classification.
Pathogenesis of bronchospastic syndrome.
The occurrence of the bronchospastic syndrome is due either to an allergic process or to the underlying disease and reflex bronchial dyskinesia.
Clinical symptoms bronchospastic syndrome
The bronchospastic syndrome is manifested by a triad of symptoms: attacks of expiratory-type asphyxiation; cough at first dry, suffocating, at the end – with the release of sputum; common dry, drawn-out wheezing, mostly on the exhale, audible from a distance.
Options flow. Complications bronchospastic syndrome
Bronchospastic syndrome of heteroallergic genesis occurs as a result of anaphylaxis to re-introduction of the antigen. It can be observed in serum and drug diseases, sometimes in response to insect bites (bees, wasps, bumblebees, hornets, etc.).
With serum sickness, laryngeal edema, rash on the skin and in the injection area, fever, lymphadenitis, arthralgia, and occasionally fatal shock are noted. For a medicinal disease, allergic rhinitis, tracheitis, bronchitis, asphyxiation with medication, urticaria and other rashes are inherent in some cases.
Autoimmune bronchospastic syndrome may take place at the persistent and very severe SLE, systemic scleroderma, dermatomyositis -Those periarteritis nodosa and other systemic vasculitis. Accompanied by fever, skin rashes, arthralgias or arthritis, leukocytosis, eosinophilia, and high levels of ESR.
Infectious-allergic bronchospastic syndrome with tuberculosis and syphilis, suffocation is manifested against the background of the underlying disease, the cure of which gives a stable remission. Allergic diseases in the family is usually not. Sputum mucopurulent with neutrophils. There are no eosinophils in the blood and sputum. The introduction of adrenaline does not bring relief; Cessation of contact with the intended allergen does not produce an effect.
Obstructive bronchospastic syndrome observed with ingestion of foreign bodies, tumors, etc. When stenosis of the larynx is determined strido -noisy breathing, hoarseness, rough bass rales in the laryngeal and trachea; suffocation increases in the supine position, poorly susceptible to the action of bronchodilators . Persistent agonizing cough, which is aggravated by a change in the position of the body, can be disturbed; The phlegm does not contain eosinophils and Kursh- manna spirals . In the diagnosis helps bronchological and X-ray examination.
Irritative bronchospastic syndrome may occur by inhalation of dust, acids, alkalis, thermal effects, poisoning with toxic chemicals, chemical warfare agents, etc.
Hemodynamic bronchospastic syndrome possible with primary pulmonary arterial hypertension, thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, venous stasis with heart defects. It is characterized by a relative rarity of attacks, stagnation and pulmonary edema, peripheral signs of circulatory failure, lack of eosinophils in sputum and blood, and effectiveness of glycoside treatment.
Endocrine-humoral bronchospastic syndrome in carcinoid syndrome, there is a surge of blood to the skin of the face, neck, hands; diarrhea, rumbling in the stomach; weakness, dizziness; increased serotonin levels in the blood. In the later stages, stenosis of the orifice of the pulmonary artery and tricuspid valve insufficiency develop. As a result of hypoparathyroidism, there is a tendency of the muscles to convulsive contractions, and the excitability of the nervous and muscular systems increases. The condition improves significantly with the introduction of calcium supplements.
Bronchospastic syndrome in hypothalamic pathology accompanied by attacks of breathlessness , chills , tremors , fever, frequent urge to urinate, prolonged weakness after an attack. BS in Addison’s diseaseoccurs with weight loss, skin pigmentation, great muscular weakness, arterial hypotension and is successfully treated with glucocorticoids .
Bronchospastic neurogenic syndrome may occur after contusions, operations on the brain, encephalitis, hiatal hernia, chronic cholecystitis. Characterized by the presence of autonomic disorders, symptoms of irritation of the autonomic nervous system, low-grade fever. Attacks of BS can be severe, and severe pulmonary insufficiency is not observed; no eosinophils in the blood and sputum. Aftercholecystectomy, the attacks of the bronchospastic syndrome disappear.
Toxic bronchospastic syndrome sometimes occurs after taking β-blockers, monoamine oxidase inhibitors , reserpine, organophosphate poisoning, etc.
By simulating a picture of bronchial asthma, the bronchospastic syndrome can lead to an erroneous diagnosis. Careful analysis of anamnestic, clinical, laboratory, radiological data, as well as the results ofbronchological studies allows you to properly make a diagnosis and prescribe adequate therapy.
Course of bronchospastic syndrome different. The cause of deaths can be: asphyxia, acute heart failure, paralysis of the respiratory center.
Bronchospasm during pregnancy
Some women in the period of bearing a child have bronchial obstruction syndrome for the first time. This is due to various changes in the body. The hormonal background changes, immunity falls. These are favorable conditions for the penetration of infections that cause long-term inflammation of the respiratory organs, and as a consequence, obstructive disease. The problem is complicated by the narrow range of drugs allowed during pregnancy.
The question of the treatment of bronchial obstruction syndrome in this case is solved individually. Funds may be assigned that are prohibited to expectant mothers if there is a real threat to the life of the woman. If you are prone to allergies, antihistamines will definitely be prescribed, since this factor plays an important role in the development of bronchospasm.
Those who have previously experienced a violation of bronchial patency, may note an increase or decrease in the frequency of attacks or their complete disappearance.
First aid. The most common attack is choking at night. If this happens for the first time, you need to call an ambulance. Before the arrival of doctors, you should: Try to eliminate the allergen that provoked the pathological condition. This may be drugs, dust, pollen, pet hair.
Rinse the patient’s mouth and nose to partially eliminate the irritant from the mucous membranes. Put the person on the bed (do not stack).Free the chest from cramped clothing. Open a window for fresh air. If the condition is rapidly deteriorating, but there are still no doctors, it is necessary to use any bronchodilator , for example, a can withVentolin .
Strictly not allowed: rubbing the patient with balms, honey, vinegar; self-medication, especially antitussive; laying the patient in a horizontal position.
During the initial attack, the person will be recommended hospitalization, especially when it comes to a child under 3 years of age. You should not refuse, because after receiving the necessary help the attack often repeats. If bronchospasm occurred earlier, then the relatives of the patient should always have on hand an aerosol with salbutamol or another medication prescribed by the doctor.
When you restore the function of breathing, you do not need to call an ambulance, but you should visit the doctor soon. If the medicine does not help, then emergency assistance is still required.
Viscous sputum outflow can be improved by special exercises. The most often used set of exercises is Strelnikov: In a standing position, slightly tilt the body forward, taking a deep breath with the nose, and then raise the torso and freely exhale with the mouth. After 8 approaches try to cough.
In the same position, the arms are bent in elbows. When you inhale, intersect, while exhaling, they return to their original posture. No less effective breathing exercises, it is in deep breaths through the nose and exhalations with a change in body position.
For example, lying on a bed turn over on one side. Make several approaches, cough. Repeat on the other side, on the stomach, back. Any physical activity allows you to better remove sputum.
Before getting rid of sputum in the bronchi, it is necessary to find out the cause of the problem, but many people often neglect this advice, continuing to conduct experiments on their health.
The most commonly used folk remedies are based on the collection of expectorant herbs and honey, which are included in the list of the strongest allergens. With bronchospasm, such treatment is prohibited, because it often only worsens the condition. Often, people consider the science of treatment “similar to similar” to be a panacea for all diseases. Representatives of classical medicine are opposed to homeopathic treatment, because they consider it ineffective, which was officially proved in early 2017.
The beneficial effect of “magic peas” is nothing more than a placebo. Some diseases they are really treated, based on self-hypnosis. These include various depression, neurosis, hypochondria.
In the case of the obstructive state, there is a serious functional impairment that is life threatening, so the use of homeopathy is unacceptable.
Treatment of symptoms of bronchospasm in adults is required to be carried out immediately, and the use of such funds leads to the transition of the underlying disease into a chronic form, deterioration or even death.