Bronchial asthma is a dangerous disease that occurs in a chronic form. Patients with this diagnosis suffer from attacks of suffocation that occur very unexpectedly. To reduce the risk of death due to them, prophylactic medical examination for bronchial asthma is provided.
It is a complex of health-improving and preventive measures designed to prevent complications and timely assess the patient’s condition. It is worth finding out what its features are.
This disease is associated with an inflammatory process in the airways. It is due to the individual characteristics of the respiratory system, due to which their sensitivity to adverse external influences increases.
In asthma, the lumens of the bronchi are narrowed due to tissue edema and excessive accumulation of mucus in them. To avoid oxygen starvation, a hyperfunctioning mechanism is triggered , implying an increase in the frequency of inspirations. This can irritate the respiratory tract, especially if the air contains pathological particles called allergens.
These include a variety of reagents: dust particles, chemicals, pet hair, pollen, etc. The more such particles enter the respiratory system, the more irritation and inflammation. This is dangerous by the development of bronchial obstruction and asthma attacks. In the absence of help during them, the patient faces death. Therefore, in case of bronchial asthma, a clinical examination is provided, aimed at preventing possible complications.
Causes of the disease and risk factors
Clinical examination for the prevention of bronchial asthma is intended not only for people with this pathology, but also for those who belong to the risk group. Knowledge of the causes of the disease and the factors contributing to its development helps to highlight them. These include:
- Genetic predisposition. The disease is not considered purely hereditary. But the presence of her in the parents increases the likelihood of occurrence in the child.
- Frequent infectious diseases. Under their influence, immunity can weaken, which increases sensitivity to adverse effects. And an untreated infection of the respiratory tract can cause pathological changes in them, due to which asthma develops.
- Allergic reactions. They arise due to the increased sensitivity of the immune system, which leads to intolerance to certain substances. Frequent contact with allergens enhances the pathological process. Symptoms become more varied and may affect the airways. Due to constant inflammation, asthma occurs in them.
- Bad habits. This is especially true for smoking. Tobacco smoke irritates the mucous membrane of the respiratory system and provokes a narrowing of the bronchi.
- Unfavorable ecological situation. Due to the content of a large amount of harmful substances in the air, disorders of the functioning of the respiratory system become widespread.
- Employment in hazardous work. Frequent contact with harmful substances affects the state of the whole organism in general and the respiratory system in particular.
The listed factors can act both individually and in combination with each other. Therefore, it is not always possible to identify the main cause of the pathology. Because of this, preventive measures can affect different areas of life.
Why do you need medical examination for bronchial asthma?
The need for dispensary observation of children and adults with bronchial asthma is explained by the peculiarities of the disease. It is a chronic disease with periods of exacerbation. It is impossible to completely get rid of this pathology, it is only possible to control its course.
The main purpose of clinical examination is considered to be the prevention of further progression of the disease. The increased frequency of asthma attacks poses a significant risk to the patient’s life, therefore it is very important to avoid traumatic influences. Dispensary observation helps in this.
During the clinical examination for bronchial asthma, the causes of suffocation are established. This happens as a result of a comprehensive examination, when the patient passes the necessary tests. It also allows you to identify changes in the patient’s condition. With this information, doctors can build the right treatment strategy.
Also, measures are aimed at preventing the development of pathology in people at risk. These include patients with a tendency to allergic reactions and infectious and inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system. They are also recommended to undergo an examination at least once a year to assess their health.
Features of clinical examination for bronchial asthma in children
Dispensary observation for bronchial asthma in children is especially important. The child’s body, due to its weakness and imperfection of the respiratory system, is more vulnerable. But at the same time, it is the kids who have the opportunity to get rid of the disease with age. This is possible if the child’s condition is monitored and the pathological manifestations are not increased. As the body strengthens, the sensitivity of the airways may decrease, which promotes recovery.
Clinical examination of children with bronchial asthma implies systematic monitoring of them by doctors. For them, an annual comprehensive examination is provided, due to which the peculiarities of the development of the disease are revealed. Correction of therapy is carried out according to them . This should be done by a pediatrician or allergist.
With a mild form of bronchial asthma, the child should be regularly brought to an appointment with a specialist. It is optimal to do this once every six months. In severe cases of the disease, examinations should be carried out 4 times a year. It is not allowed to miss planned visits to the doctor, regardless of the periods of exacerbation and remission.
During the survey, the following types of surveys are necessarily carried out:
- immunological blood test;
- biochemical blood test;
- sputum examination;
All these studies are recommended to be carried out twice a year (with the exception of the first one – it is carried out once a year).
Dispensary observation involves the interaction of specialists of different profiles. The attending physician can refer the child to a dermatologist, dentist, otolaryngologist or phthisiatrician for consultation. This allows you to prevent the development of complications of bronchial asthma due to concomitant pathologies. You may also need the help of a psychologist, since the illness can affect the psychological state of the child.
Dispensary observation is intended not only for children with such a diagnosis. It also applies to patients at risk. The pediatrician examines the baby’s medical records and identifies those who may have respiratory problems. Their condition also needs to be controlled.
Dispensary observation of adults with bronchial asthma
Clinical examination for bronchial asthma is carried out in relation to adult patients. Despite the fact that such patients are able to control their condition themselves, they need the help of doctors no less than children. Adults have a very high risk of developing complications due to their professional activities, the presence of concomitant diseases and a high level of nervous tension. Therefore, they also need to visit a pulmonologist or therapist for regular monitoring.
The features of the activities carried out within the framework of medical examination differ depending on which group the person belongs to. According to the classification, there are three groups:
- It includes people who are considered healthy. They have no complaints about the functioning of the respiratory system, and tests do not reveal abnormalities in this area. They have no chronic diseases of the bronchopulmonary system. This group is not subject to dispensary supervision. For them, an annual planned examination is provided to make sure that there is no tendency to the development of bronchial asthma. Also, among the representatives of this category, it is supposed to promote a healthy lifestyle and the rejection of bad habits.
- These patients are considered to be at risk. They often have infectious diseases of the respiratory system or are diagnosed with chronic diseases of the respiratory system. A history of allergy tendencies is also a reason for the patient to be included in this group. They are subject to medical examination and must comply with all recommendations related to it. This implies going through an examination 1-2 times a year with a study of blood and sputum, measurement of FVP and fluorography. Changes in their condition are recorded and studied. If necessary, prescribe therapy.
- This group includes patients diagnosed with asthma. They are supposed to be observed throughout life. The frequency of scheduled examinations is determined individually, according to the clinical picture of the disease. They, too, must undergo a complete examination every year. They should also visit dispensaries twice a year for anti-relapse treatment. During exacerbations of bronchial asthma, patients should consult a doctor. In mild and moderate conditions, therapy is carried out on an outpatient basis, in severe cases, it is recommended to be treated in a hospital.
Among all patients subject to clinical examination, information should be disseminated on how to prevent the further development of pathology. Doctors should explain the need for safety precautions. Such patients are not recommended to work in the chemical industry or engage in activities that require being in dusty rooms or associated with intense physical activity. Smoking is also contraindicated for them.
In addition to consulting a therapist, asthmatics should visit an allergist, since bronchial asthma is often associated with allergies. It is also necessary to prevent the occurrence of infectious diseases. This will help the visits to the otolaryngologist and dentist. The effectiveness of treatment and preventive measures depends on the well-coordinated interaction of specialists of different profiles.
During the clinical examination for bronchial asthma, measures are taken to develop an effective strategy for treating the disease and preventing complications. As part of it, a study of the state of the patient’s respiratory system is carried out in order to identify the degree of risks.
Based on the results of the examination, the effectiveness of the applied therapy is assessed and the necessary adjustments are made. Also part of this work is the dissemination of information on precautions that can be used to reduce the threat of exacerbation.