Bronchial asthma is a common pathology and is accompanied by inflammation of the airways. The defeat of the bronchi causes breathing problems, asthma attacks and requires immediate therapy.
Clinical guidelines for bronchial asthma in children help the doctor choose the right treatment regimen. Respiratory tract disease develops due to exposure to irritating factors. Allergens can be pollen, wool, dust, mold, medicines, etc.
Features of the development of bronchial asthma in children
There are more boys among sick children with bronchial asthma. This pattern is observed at an early age. With the onset of puberty, pathology is more often detected in girls.
One of the significant factors for the diagnosis of the disease is the age category of the patient. Classification according to this criterion is carried out due to the peculiarities of the manifestation of the disease. Therefore, for each age group, there are appropriate clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of asthma.
Typical signs of bronchial asthma in children of different ages:
- Infants under one year old are worried about sneezing, accompanied by mucous discharge. There is swelling of the tonsils, problems with the gastrointestinal tract, wheezing is heard. The kid is constantly naughty, does not sleep well.
- A child under five years of age noticeably quickens breathing, a dry type cough appears during games or sleep, physical activity causes a feeling of discomfort in the chest.
- At the age of 5 to 12 years, children have a dry cough after any vigorous activity; allergic manifestations on the skin or rhinitis may occur.
- Teenagers over 12 years old in most cases know their diagnosis and the aggravating allergen. The body’s reaction to it is expressed by a strong cough at night and breathing problems (accompanied by loud whistling sounds), suffocation attacks are noted.
If at any age the first symptoms of asthma begin to appear in a child, you should immediately contact a pediatrician.
You can distinguish asthma from colds by the absence of fever. The faster the pathology is detected, the more effective the treatment will be and the longer the remission period.
Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis of asthma in children
Modern medicine allows you to determine the described ailment in several ways. Which one to apply is decided by the attending physician, based on the child’s age, symptoms, individual characteristics of the body.
For patients suspected of having asthma, a number of clinical guidelines have been developed for its diagnosis:
- Communication with parents. Information is collected on the child’s health status, pathologies suffered, medications taken, and vaccinations. The doctor is interested in disturbing symptoms, finds out the frequency and characteristics of attacks, the circumstances preceding them, asks about the presence of family members suffering from BA or other sick relatives with bronchial asthma.
- Skin tests. This stage of the study is aimed at identifying a specific allergen that causes a negative reaction in the body. To do this, several small scratches are made in the forearm area. Wounds are treated with a preparation containing a small amount of a specific allergen (dust, pollen, etc.). The research results become known within 20 minutes. Positive is manifested by the formation of a blister, negative – by the absence of changes in the skin. The method is not suitable for babies under three years of age.
- Linked immunosorbent assay. It is based on the study of the patient’s venous blood for the presence of antibodies produced by the body to combat any irritant. The analysis is relevant for all ages.
- Study of the function of external respiration. It is assigned to children who have reached the age of five. It is carried out using a spirometer device that measures the speed and volume of exhaled air. Allows you to monitor the work of the entire respiratory system, to detect deviations.
When diagnosing bronchial asthma in children, laboratory tests are required at least once every two years. This is necessary, since the number of irritants that cause pathology may increase over time. You can detect an allergen yourself if symptoms occur after an encounter with a certain environmental factor.
Sometimes, to confirm the diagnosis, the doctor prescribes special tests, for example, bronchodilatory tests, in which measurements are taken when the bronchi are relaxed, and broncho-provocative tests , which are performed after exercise on a stationary bike or treadmill.
Recommendations for the management of asthma in children
The described pathology is chronic, and it is completely impossible to cure it. The developed recommendations for the treatment of childhood bronchial asthma are aimed at alleviating the patient’s condition, improving the quality of life.
It is important to monitor the development of the disease and its manifestations, which will allow to stop seizures in a timely manner and avoid complications.
Treatment of asthmatics requires an integrated approach, therefore, recommendations for bronchial asthma include not only the appointment of certain drugs, but a number of other therapeutic and preventive measures.
The main clinical guidelines for the treatment of asthma in children:
- taking medications. Use bronchodilators , hormones and other medications in the form of inhalations and tablets;
- strengthening the body’s natural defenses;
- elimination of provoking factors affecting the development of bronchial asthma;
- counseling parents about the characteristics of the disease, the rules of treatment and child care.
In most cases, therapy is carried out on an outpatient basis, under the constant supervision of an allergist. With an exacerbation of severe asthma, the child needs to be hospitalized to stabilize the condition.
Lifestyle of a child with asthma
Many parents are concerned about whether their child will be able to lead a fulfilling life with such a disease. To help the baby, adults need to create the most favorable conditions under which the frequency of symptoms is minimal.
Despite the many limitations associated with the disease, it is important to ensure the child’s full physical and psychological development. Recommendations developed by doctors for patients with bronchial asthma help to adjust their lifestyle, taking into account the peculiarities of the pathology:
- Heavy physical activity is prohibited, but activity is necessary for a growing body. Swimming will be optimal. This sport not only strengthens muscles, but also helps to develop proper breathing.
- To avoid an exacerbation of the disease, it is required to limit walks during the flowering period. It is better to spend this time in a sanatorium or dispensary, where there is no irritating factor. With exacerbations of asthma, doctors insist on hospitalization of the child to control the state of health. The length of hospital stay can be anywhere from two to three weeks.
- You need to adjust your diet if you are allergic to any foods. It is important to develop a complete diet with sufficient amounts of fats, proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals.
- The patient needs to regularly take medication and visit a doctor to monitor his health.
Recommendations for the prevention of exacerbations of asthma in a child
The main task of parents with this disease is to minimize the number of seizures in a child. For this, it is necessary not only to carry out medical appointments, but also to take preventive measures. With bronchial asthma it is necessary:
- carry out wet cleaning daily;
- provide fresh air in the room where the child is;
- eliminate irritating factors that cause allergies;
- get rid of things that collect dust, as well as feather pillows and blankets;
- monitor the patient’s diet, exclude foods that provoke an asthma attack.
If you follow all these measures, then the risks of exacerbations will decrease, and the pathology will go into remission for a long time.
Tips for parents
To maintain health, patients with bronchial asthma need regular consultation with a specialist. In this case, you need to visit a local pediatrician or an allergist, follow all the recommendations.
Parents need to control the physical and emotional stress of the baby, prevent overwork, make sure that the child always carries the inhaler prescribed by the doctor, and takes medications in a timely manner.
It is important to completely get rid of allergens in the house and make it safe for asthmatics. It is advisable to change natural fabrics to synthetic ones, since the latter accumulate less dust.
It is preferable to choose furniture from wood, because the composition of the chipboard blocks contains glue, which can cause allergies. Windows should be tightly closed so that pollen and other irritants from the environment do not enter the room during the flowering period.
If someone in the family smokes, it is important to protect the child from tobacco smoke, otherwise there is a risk of provoking an attack.
Also, adults are required to inform the kindergarten, school, camp and other places about the presence of bronchial asthma in a child and give a list of allergens.
Usually the child spends most of the time outside the home. Therefore, not only parents and doctors take part in the treatment of BA, but also school teachers, kindergarten teachers and nurses of these institutions.
It is impossible to completely cure bronchial asthma , but it is really possible to prevent attacks and alleviate its symptoms. Clinical guidelines in this case will help both in diagnosing the disease and in selecting the optimal treatment regimen.