Pneumonia is the inflammation of the lung tissue, which is accompanied by the obstruction of oxygen exchange as a result of filling the airways with pus and other pathological fluids. There are several types of the disease: hospital ( nosocomial ), non-hospital and aspiration.
Typically, inflammation occurs due to Streptococcus. pneumoniae , which, respectively, leads to pneumococcal disease. The cause of the development of pneumonia in an atypical form are viruses, fungi, a number of bacteria and chemicals (eg, exhaled stomach contents).
With timely and adequate treatment, the disease recedes quickly enough. Difficulties during and pneumonia are observed in the elderly, as well as in the presence of chronic diseases.
Severe infections require prompt and radical treatment in the hospital. Infants are also at risk, especially those with diabetes and chronic pulmonary pathologies. Often, pneumonia is diagnosed in male smokers, especially in winter.
Complications of pneumonia require urgent hospitalization.
Recovery after illness
The condition of the patient, both adult and child, improves after 3-5 days since the start of antibiotic therapy. The symptoms of cough and fever should decrease. It is worth noting that the cough is observed for another month, although many a week later can return to the usual conditions oflife.
After a month and a half after making the diagnosis, you need to visit the doctor again to confirm the recovery and to eliminate the presence of unpleasant consequences.
Pulmonary and other complications of pneumonia
Basically, this pathology is successfully resolved and does not entail serious consequences, however, patients who are at risk should be extremely careful. Complications are usually associated with the lungs or medication. Often, inflammation leads to an exacerbation of existing chronic pathologies, for example, obstructive pulmonary disease (emphysema) or congestive heart failure.
Common complications from pneumonia in adults and children:
- levrit ;
- Septicemia and bacteremia (blood poisoning);
- Abscesslungs ;
- Apneaor respiratory failure ;
- Heart problems;
- Diarrhea, rash due to medication.
Pleurisy after pneumonia
The pleura is two thin spheres between the chest and the lungs. Inflammation of the pleura – pleurisy – often occurs in both children and adults. Exudative pleurisy is a rarer occurrence – accumulation of fluid in this space. The fluid makes breathing difficult by exerting pressure on the lungs. As a rule, the body cope with pleural effusion even during the course of the disease. Sometimes it happens that the exudate becomes infected with bacteria, and as a result, suppuration develops (pleural empyema). Infected fluid is removed with the help of a thin needle, but in severe cases (damage to the pleura, lungs) resort to surgical intervention.
This pathology is rare and mostly in people suffering from severe forms of chronic diseases. Complication is characterized by the appearance of cavities in the lungs and accumulation of pus in those.
The symptoms of an abscess include swelling of the fingers on the upper and lower extremities, as well as the unpleasant smell of outgoing sputum. Therapy consists in the intravenous administration of antibiotics. In the future, for a month and a half, you will need to drink the appropriate pills. The course can not be interrupted, even in the case of a significant improvement in the patient’s condition.
Impact on the heart
As a rule, such conditions occur in case of non-hospital pneumonia. The risk of endocardial damage (the inner lining of the heart) increases in people with sepsis and the presence of chronic pathogia of the heart.
Infective endocarditis often occurs with staphylococcal bacteremia in children who do not suffer from structural heart disease. Adults are more likely to get sick in the presence of degenerative heart disease. The principle of treatment of both groups of patients is the same – antibiotic therapy for 1-2 months.
Specify a common complication after pneumonia in premature babies.
Such babies have both pulmonary and extrapulmonary pathologies caused by inflammation. The first includes atelectasis, pneumothorax, the aforementioned pleurisy, the second – otitis media, DIC, intestinal paresis, hemorrhagic syndrome, sclerema , malnutrition, adrenal insufficiency, hemodynamic disorders, metabolic disorders.
As for the latter, the most common complications of pneumonia in children include: mixed acidosis, hyperbilirubinemia , hypoglycemia, hyponatremia , hypokalemia , hypocalcemia . In premature infants, Kravets is often a symptom – frothy discharge from the mouth. This is due to the lowresorption ability of the lung tissue, stagnant phenomena in them. That is why in patients with premature babies, crepitating rales are often heard during inflammation.
More often, complications after pneumonia in premature babies are accompanied by persistent fetal circulation, and later – open ductus syndrome. Often there is a violation of peripheral blood circulation – edema, marble skin pattern, its gray color, cold hands and feet.
It is recommended to carry out X-rays, as the study allows to identify such complications as abscess, atelectasis, pneumothorax, etc.
It is worth noting that pneumonia can lead to the death of a newborn, especially a premature infant.
Complications of focal and lobar pneumonia
In the acute period of the disease, vital organs may be affected by microbial toxins and lung tissue breakdown products. These include acute cardiac and respiratory failure, toxic shock, myocarditis, pericarditis, pulmonary edema, psychosis, anemia, bleeding disorders.
Complications of lobar pneumonia include purulent processes: abscess and gangrene of the lung, empyema, pleurisy, sepsis, meningitis. With the same frequency, they are observed in both focal and lobar pneumonia. Often the disease affects the gastrointestinal tract, causing gastrointestinal bleeding, mesenteric vein thrombosis, acute cholecystitis. Prevention of the development of complications of pneumonia
People at risk should be vaccinated against influenza every year on the recommendation of WHO. Vaccines are developed from virus strains that are projected to be active in the current year. Such an event will reduce the risk of viral pneumonia. There are also vaccines against Streptococcus. pneumoniae. For people at risk of opportunistic infections, pneumococcal vaccination can be a good support for weakened immunity.
Parents of young children, as well as adults should contact the clinic immediately when the first symptoms of a cold, ARVI, with a protracted cough occur.
In time, the detected disease is much easier to eliminate than the progressed one. It is very important to maintain a healthy lifestyle during the period of treatment; adults should not smoke or drink alcohol. A balanced diet, alternation of work and rest, moderate exercise are recommended.
Effective prevention is infection control. Usually such measures are implemented in medical institutions, but in everyday life it is also important to follow a number of rules, for example, wash hands frequently and treat them with alcohol-containing means.
The vast majority of patients recover successfully, but deaths are not an exception. Mortality ranges from 5 to 10% among patients admitted to hospital.