Congestive (hypostatic) pneumonia

Congestive hypostatic pneumonia is a secondary pathology of the respiratory system. This disease most often appears in patients whose history is already burdened with serious ailments. As a result, dysfunction of the bronchopulmonary system occurs. With congestive pneumonia, functional tissues are inflamed and the alveoli are filled with exudative fluid. Prolonged pneumonia can be caused by infectious and non-infectious factors. At risk are the elderly and bedridden patients. This pneumonia is often referred to as hypostatic pneumonia. A deadly hypostatic ailment develops due to a slowdown in blood flow. Symptoms at the initial stages are often absent, so it is quite difficult to identify pneumonia during this period of time. Therapy should take place in a hospital. Home treatment will not be enough.

Disease development process

Hypostatic pneumonia develops as follows:

  • The veins that penetrate the functional tissue are filled with blood. Venous hyperemia occurs, which provokes the expansion of small vessels and compression of the alveoli. The transparency decreases, the interstitial pattern increases.
  • The transudate enters the alveoli.
  • Edema is formed, functional tissue is replaced. The doctor detects induration of parenchymal organs and pneumosclerosis.

The first symptoms of pneumonia appear 14–20 days after the onset of pathogenesis. The clinical course of hypostatic pneumonia depends on the general condition and individual characteristics of the patient. In bedridden patients, pneumonia is much more severe than in patients who are not limited in movement.


The impetus for the development of hypostatic pneumonia is given by the “duet” of hemodynamic disorders and dysfunction of the drainage system. Due to hypoventilation in the airways, favorable conditions are formed for the vital activity of pathogenic microorganisms.

The factors that aggravate the general condition of the patient with pneumonia include:

  • surgical intervention;
  • deformation of the chest and spine;
  • oncology (terminal stage);
  • emphysema of the lungs;
  • chronic pyelonephritis;
  • bronchial asthma;
  • cardiovascular diseases.

Among the pathogens that can cause congestive pneumonia are:

  • pneumococci;
  • hemophilic sticks;
  • streptococci;
  • candida;
  • staphylococci.

Stagnation of blood causes interruptions in ventilation of air in the lungs. A large amount of viscous mucus appears in the bronchi. Already at the first stage of congestive pneumonia, the patient develops alveolar collapse. Hypostatic disease can be unilateral and bilateral.

Elderly people suffer from many chronic conditions. This negatively affects the condition of the lungs:

  • The mucous membranes lining the airways atrophy.
  • The walls of the alveoli become less elastic.
  • The cartilage that forms the trachea and bronchi suffers from dystrophy.
  • The vital volume of the respiratory system decreases.
  • The concentration of carbon dioxide increases.

Congestive pneumonia can occur due to prolonged stay in bed, traumatic brain injury, and overweight. In the affected area is the lower respiratory system. The risk of developing hypostatic pneumonia is increased due to:

  • severe exhaustion;
  • decrease in the protective reaction;
  • autoimmune pathologies;
  • marginal collapse of the lungs.


The intensity of the characteristic manifestations depends on the stage of the disease. The following signs are necessarily present in the clinical picture:

  • increased body temperature;
  • wet cough;
  • weakness in the whole body;
  • shortness of breath that occurs during exercise.

Early-type congestive pneumonia in the first few days progresses covertly. Arrhythmic noisy breathing becomes a significant cause for concern. Rapid pulse and wheezing in the lungs should be noted. If the root cause of hypostatic pneumonia is a disturbance in the work of the heart, the doctor records an increase in symptoms. In the absence of timely therapy, complications arise, among them pericarditis and exudative pleurisy.

Cough with pneumonia does not appear immediately. At first, it does not cause concern, since it does not cause much discomfort. According to the intensity and nature of the discharge, it is often confused with the residual. In the future, the symptom becomes more pronounced, while the bronchial secretion is no longer allocated. Blood may appear.

The list of signs that occur with pneumonia includes:

  • excessive sweating;
  • chills;
  • blood pressure surges;
  • dyspnea at rest;
  • pain in the sternum.

With the disease, the skin becomes less sensitive, neurological symptoms develop (dizziness, loss of consciousness, migraine).


To identify hypostatic pneumonia, the patient is prescribed a referral for bacterial culture, OAC, OAM, sputum microscopy and a biochemical blood test. This stage is preceded by history taking, physical examination, auscultation, and percussion. X-ray is included in the instrumental examination scheme . With its help, you can see changes in the vascular pattern, determine the level of transparency and localization of darkening.

Ultrasound of the pericardium and pleural cavity, echocardiography, ECG, chest MRI, bronchoscopy are also considered effective diagnostic methods. The latter is necessary in the presence of an inflammatory process in the pleura. You may also need to consult a traumatologist, pulmonologist, neurologist and cardiologist. With differential diagnosis, collagenosis, tuberculosis, heart failure and lung cancer can be ruled out .

Therapy methods

The therapeutic regimen prescribed for congestive pneumonia includes medicines, physiotherapy and traditional medicine. The medical complex is selected by the doctor. At the same time, he focuses on the results of the diagnostic examination and the individual characteristics of the patient.

The list of drugs used for pneumonia includes:

  • antibiotics (Ampicillin, Clarithromycin, Augmentin, Sumamed, Flemoxin, Zinnat);
  • mucolytics (Ambrohexal, Ambrobene, Lazolvan, ACC);
  • diuretics;
  • glycosides.

Also used are drugs with expectorant, immunomodulatory and antioxidant properties. Oxygen therapy, therapeutic massage, breathing exercises, and inhalation are considered effective physiotherapeutic procedures. As an auxiliary therapy for pneumonia, you can use formulations prepared on the basis of medicinal plants. The latter include elecampane, wild rose, viburnum, thyme.


The prognosis depends on the stage at which the treatment of congestive hypostatic pneumonia was started . In the absence of timely therapy , a lethal outcome is possible. Complications include lung abscess, edema of the affected organ, acute respiratory failure, acute inflammation of the pleural cavity. The probability of complete recovery is 40%.


To avoid the occurrence of hypostatic pneumonia, the patient should not forget about exercise. Patients who are lying should be engaged in therapeutic exercises in bed. The prophylaxis that is taken to prevent congestive pneumonia is quite simple:


  • It is necessary to change the position of the body. If a person is not able to do this on their own, relatives or medical staff should help him.
  • The patient should eat properly. Excess weight is a factor that slows down blood flow.
  • Regular massage is required. This is a way that blood circulation can be stabilized.
  • Frequent visits to the bathhouse. To achieve the maximum effect, it is recommended to combine warming up with massage.

All medical and preventive measures must be agreed with the doctor. Each method has contraindications, ignoring which is fraught with negative consequences.


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