Differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma. Bronchial asthma and pulmonary pathology

Differential diagnosis of bronchial asthma is carried out with asthma-like conditions. Repeated asthmatic attacks of suffocation (shortness of breath) are distinguished primarily with asthma-like conditions: • COPD, especially in smokers. With COPD, dyspnea progresses slowly, over the years, and intensifies during an exacerbation of the disease amid the appearance of mucopurulent sputum. COPD rarely causes shortness of breath before age 40. An increase in 0ОФВ1 after inhalation (beta-2-AH is less than 10%. For BA, a sudden onset of severe respiratory failure with paroxysmal cough is more characteristic. Evaluation of the response (relief of obstruction) to trial treatment of corticosteroids and monitoring of ventilation is important. Often this distinction is not easy, since AD ​​and COPD can coexist; • syndromic bronchospastic syndrome with DBST (SLE, systemic scleroderma), vasculitis (Cherge – Strauss syndrome – immediately begins as AD and allergic rhinitis of women, persistent eosinophi is expressed blood flow, volatile pulmonary infiltrates, and only later does a systematic lesion appear); • tracheobronchial dyskinesia (valve obstruction of the bronchi), often occurring during exacerbation due to the protrusion of the membranous part of the mucous membrane into the lumen of the bronchus by more than half the diameter of the bronchus; • TELA of small branches (quickly transient breathing difficulties, sighting develop; hemoptysis, pleural pain, tachypnea may be less common) • cardiac asthma (“nocturnal interstitial pulmonary edema” with moderate obstruction of the bronchi), cha e occurring in elderly patients with cardiomegaly or left ventricular dysfunction on the background of existing coronary heart disease, myocardial infarction, hypertension, or heart failure. A variety of pathologies are detected on the ECG and chest radiograph. Episodes of complete AV blockade, severe paroxysmal tachycardia can also cause difficult to explain shortness of breath; • bronchogenic cancer – you can think about it when adults have difficulty breathing. Radiographs of the lungs may have normal data, therefore bronchoscopy and CT of the lungs are necessary. Serotonin crises are sometimes noted against the background of carcinoid syndrome; • interstitial pulmonary fibrosis (with obstruction, pulmonary volatile infiltrate and eosinophilia); • bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (with a course resembling exogenous bronchial asthma): the appearance of mucous plugs with the subsequent development of atelectasis, recurrent pulmonary infiltrates with peribronchial eosinophilic inflammation, aspergillus growth in sputum, eosinophilia and the formation of proximal bronchiectasis if untreated. Less commonly, the distinction between bronchial asthma is carried out with other diseases caused by internal structural pathology (croup, diphtheria); obstruction of the upper respiratory tract (foreign body, laryngospasm, stenosis of the bronchus, paralysis of the vocal cords) and lower respiratory tract (aspiration, hysterical attack, ARDS); external compression (mediastinal tumor, pharyngeal abscess); intrabronchial aspiration (foreign bodies), degenerative diseases (sarcoidosis due to the formation of endobronchial granulomas, a tumor). A differential diagnosis of asthmatic status is usually carried out with acute pulmonary edema due to cardiac pathology; Tela; severe infection; pneumothorax and anaphylactic shock.

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