Bronchial asthma is a chronic disease that affects the respiratory tract. The pathogenetic basis is allergic inflammation and bronchial hyperreactivity.
Bronchial asthma in the interictal period may be accompanied by shortness of breath, wheezing in the lungs, coughing, a feeling of compression in the chest area in a severe form of the disease.
Symptoms like these are mostly disturbing in the early morning or at night. Mild to moderate forms of the disease may be asymptomatic.
Bronchial asthma – a general concept
This disease of the respiratory system, which develops in the bronchi, is not an infectious inflammation. Suffocation begins after exposure to an irritant. The following violations can act as a provoking factor:
- failure of the immune system;
- disorder of the autonomic nervous system;
- pathological sensitivity of the receptors of the bronchial mucosa to allergic substances;
- disruption of the organs of the endocrine system.
There are no cases of suffocation in bronchial asthma in the interictal period. To prolong it, patients must systematically use maintenance drugs.
Causes of the disease
After a long study of BA, scientists have established the main causes of the development of the disease.
- Hereditary predisposition. If both parents have asthma, the child has an 80% risk of developing it.
- Industrial allergens (dust, chemicals) most often affect workers in poultry factories, weaving and spinning workshops, chemical plants.
- Volatile allergens found in exhaust fumes and smoke.
- Improper nutrition.
- Chronic bronchitis and frequently recurring respiratory tract infections.
- Continuous contact with household dust.
- Seasonal allergies.
Form and severity of the disease
The disease progresses periodically. It can take several forms and vary in severity. Depending on the nature of development, AD is accompanied by certain complications.
There are such clinical forms:
- non-infectious allergic – develops under the influence of allergens. Coughing attacks occur periodically, whistling is heard when breathing, shortness of breath occurs. In addition, the person tries to inhale and exhale frequently. Over time, the condition may worsen;
- an infectious allergic form develops against the background of a bronchopulmonary infection, as well as inflammation in the nasopharynx;
- mixed BA in its manifestations resembles asthma of an infectious-allergic form. The list of common complaints includes paroxysmal cough, choking, shortness of breath, pronounced wheezing, and chest tightness.
According to the severity of asthma, there are:
- 1 degree – mild episodic. There are no pronounced attacks of suffocation. A characteristic symptom is coughing attacks, which disturb once a week during the day and about twice a month at night. This intermittent course is often diagnosed at the onset of the disease;
- Grade 2 – persistent with a mild course. Choking is rare and passes quickly. During the examination in the interictal period, health problems are not detected;
- Grade 3 – persistent with moderate course. Asthma attacks are often disturbing. A person cannot make great physical efforts to perform certain work;
- Grade 4 – persistent with severe course. The attacks become protracted. Organic changes are observed not only in the bronchi and lungs, but also in other organs. The body is exposed to constant oxygen starvation. The patient becomes practically disabled.
Features of the course of the disease
An attack of bronchial asthma begins suddenly. Despite this, you can detect its imminent onset by the following symptoms:
- chest discomfort;
- frequent sneezing;
Choking can begin at night. The patient has difficulty breathing, he is tormented by severe shortness of breath and the inability to clear his throat. To relieve symptoms, you have to take a sitting position or bend over and lean on your hands.
If prolonged suffocation is not eliminated with the help of bronchodilator drugs, then asthmatic status develops. This condition can be metabolic or anaphylactic.
In the second case, there is a very rapid progression of symptoms. The metabolic form is characterized by a gradual increase in the severity of suffocation. It develops if measures to stop the attack were not taken or were ineffective.
If the attack is safely stopped, the patient’s breathing is normalized, he can normally clear his throat and relax.
In the interictal period of bronchial asthma, the doctor can assess the severity of the disease, and also develop an effective treatment regimen. They also reveal whether cough and shortness of breath persist during this period, clarify whether the patient suffers from increased fatigue and decreased performance.
In addition, at this time, it is possible to select the optimal package of drugs, determine the dosage and identify possible side effects. In an advanced case, the interictal period of bronchial asthma decreases, and the frequency of attacks increases.
The course of asthma during remission is not accompanied by symptoms characteristic of any degree of the disease. Negative manifestations can be subject to the development of a severe degree of the disease.
If there is a suspicion of the appearance of asthma, then in the interictal period the patient needs to see a doctor to clarify his condition and identify the true cause of the disease.
It is also necessary to develop an effective treatment regimen. With a thorough examination of the patient, the doctor will be able to distinguish bronchial asthma from other respiratory diseases.
Clinical manifestations of asthma in the interictal period
Clinic in the interictal period of bronchial asthma depends on the severity of the disease. For example, with moderate and severe course of the disease, violations of bronchial patency are found. Eosinophilia and an increase in IgE levels in the blood are also observed .
In the interictal period with severe atopic bronchial asthma , the patient’s condition may be complicated due to poor bronchial patency. In this case, the symptoms of the disease can manifest itself in the form of shortness of breath, periodic wheezing, shortness of breath.
Patients may not have characteristic symptoms between attacks. In some cases, only wheezing is detected on auscultation. This phenomenon confirms the presence of residual bronchial obstruction. Sometimes wheezing can be detected with forced expiration.
Treatment in the interictal period
In the interictal period with bronchial asthma, hyposensitizing therapy is used. Specific hyposensitization is quite effective in treating the allergic form of the disease.
Such therapy of bronchial asthma in the interictal period involves the introduction of a vaccine under the skin containing a microdose of allergens causing an exacerbation of asthma. The scheme of such treatment is determined individually, based on the patient’s response to the vaccine.
The doctor may prescribe injections every day or at intervals of 4-5 days. The course of treatment involves the use of drugs for about 2-3 years.
If there is an increased sensitivity of the body to household dust or bacteria, then the treatment is carried out throughout the year. In the case of a pollen allergy, it is sufficient to carry out therapy in the fall and spring.
The effectiveness of this method of treatment is due to the development of immunity and the formation of blocking antibodies in the patient’s body.
If there are contraindications to specific sensitization, the specialist will prescribe non-specific hyposensitization using histaglobin .
The course of treatment is up to five injections, while the interval between manipulations is three days. If necessary, the therapeutic course is repeated six months later.
Chronic infections are often found in children with AD. As a rule, in the interictal period, they need to be eliminated first. Also, hardening of the body, physiotherapy exercises, reflexotherapy, special massage, health improvement in sanatoriums have a positive effect.
To prevent exacerbations in the interictal period, the use of beta2-adrenostimulants is recommended. If you have cardiovascular disease, then such drugs should be used with caution. Cromones are also prescribed , and in severe cases, corticosteroids.
Usually beta- adrenostimulants are available in metered-dose aerosols. In the interictal period, it is worth taking two breaths 3-4 times a day. For ease of use, the drug can be equipped with a special nozzle with a valve.
Prevention of exacerbations of bronchial asthma
To minimize the risk of exacerbation of bronchial asthma, prevention rules must be followed.
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Preventive measures should be clearly followed by patients who have previously suffered from or are suffering from asthma at the moment.
In order to prevent the disease from developing, it is necessary:
- move to an ecologically clean area;
- carry out frequent cleaning of the premises, remove carpets, books and soft toys;
- follow simple hygiene rules;
- timely remove wool and excrement of pets;
- use hypoallergenic household items;
- eat properly and in a balanced way, exclude foods with food additives and other harmful ingredients from the diet;
- limit the use of aerosols in the form of air fresheners, deodorants, perfumes;
- quit smoking completely;
- work in an allergen-free environment;
- take medication only after consulting a doctor;
- timely treat respiratory diseases;
- lead a healthy and active lifestyle, temper, engage in physiotherapy exercises;
- periodically visit resorts located in an ecologically clean area.
It is also recommended to follow these recommendations:
- timely treat chronic diseases of the respiratory system;
- stop drinking alcohol;
- clean the room from objects that accumulate dust;
- exclude allergenic foods from your diet;
- attend therapeutic massage sessions, perform breathing exercises;
- if possible, visit salt mines.
Following these rules will not only allow you to forget about bronchial asthma for a long time, but also significantly improve your overall health.