Pneumonia is an insidious inflammatory condition of the respiratory system that is characterized by loss of energy, intense coughing, fever, and shortness of breath. Often, a severe cough is accompanied by the release of a small volume of blood clots. Hemoptysis in pneumonia is not considered a mandatory symptomatology, but it may be a sign that the pathology is aggravated and needs immediate treatment.
When there is bloody discharge in the sputum
If the mucus stained with blood appears 1-2 times, then you should not worry. It is possible that a weak vessel burst in the throat, and a drop of blood got into the mucus coming out. If a person feels normal, the blood volume is small, then there is no reason to imply a dangerous pathology. If blood in the mucus is secreted for 1-2 days, then you need to contact your doctor with this problem. This situation occurs as a result of the following reasons:
- complicated pneumonia;
- oncology of the upper or lower respiratory tract;
- lung abscess.
Doctors call bronchial inflammation and pneumonia the most common causes of hemoptysis.
Pneumonia, which is complicated by hemoptysis, is confirmed by a number of characteristic symptoms:
- the patient feels chills or fever, the condition is accompanied by headaches, loss of strength, severe sweating;
- the inflammatory process in the lungs is accompanied by cough, shortness of breath and obstruction syndrome;
- the patient is not easily given each breath, which gives off painful sensations in the sternum, their localization is concentrated in the area of lung damage;
- pulmonary hemoptysis occurs only during coughing, while the volume of mucus secreted is significant.
Causes of hemoptysis in pneumonia
Lung inflammation is triggered by several different pathogens. For this reason, pulmonary inflammatory pathology develops unevenly. In some types of inflammation, sputum production with bloody blotches is considered a relatively normal process, that is, it does not go beyond the standard course of pneumonia. With other types of pathology, this situation indicates the progress of complications. Only a qualified pulmonologist can diagnose the type of pneumonia with hemoptysis.
In order to understand the main causes of the appearance of blood in the mucus and whether this situation is alarming for health, you should know what kind of pneumonia we are talking about:
- Lobar pneumonia. It is caused by pneumococci. A painful cough at the beginning of the disease is accompanied by mucous sputum, then purulent discharge is observed in it, and after a couple of days, discharge with a rusty tint begins. This mucus color indicates small bloody particles. For lobar pneumonia, this symptom is not alarming and is considered a normal course of the inflammatory process.
- Focal pneumonia. Particles of blood during coughing are the development of such a dangerous complication as a lung abscess. Symptoms are alarming and require the prompt placement of the patient in the hospital for treatment under the supervision of specialists.
- Inflammation of the lungs, which is joined by bronchitis or tracheitis. Pulmonologists do not consider small amounts of blood in the mucus to be a dangerous symptom that requires immediate attention. As a result of a correctly selected treatment regimen, a rapid improvement in the patient’s condition occurs.
- Inflammation of the lungs, which was caused by the penetration of staphylococci. Most often it develops as a complication after a viral flu. Staphylococcal inflammation is difficult and is often accompanied by purulent mucus with blood, a small volume of which should not cause concern.
- Pulmonary inflammation provoked by Friedlander’s stick. A small amount of blood streaks in the early days of the disease is considered a normal course of the disease. An increase in blood volume 4-5 days after the onset of the disease is a dangerous sign – this indicates the onset of a lung abscess.
- Legionella pneumonia clears up with a blood-stained cough. This symptom is not dangerous, it is quickly treated with the correct therapy regimen.
Regardless of the type of pulmonary inflammation, blood in sputum should be regarded as a sign that requires increased attention to the disease, and is often a signal for additional diagnostic measures or for adjusting the treatment.
The diagnosis is made after examining the patient, considering his complaints, listening to breathing and on the basis of the results of special studies and analyzes. With the standard course of inflammation, the patient is assigned a chest x-ray. To determine which bacteria or virus caused the inflammation, patients should undergo the following tests and tests:
- general detailed blood test, confirming the degree of pulmonary inflammation;
- urinalysis also demonstrates the progress of inflammation and the general condition of the damage to the body;
- sputum culture specifies the type of the causative agent of pneumonia;
- X-ray, which is mandatory for all patients with pneumonia, is a clarifying method for examining pathological abnormalities in the lungs;
- in the course of treatment, to clarify the state of inflammation, a procedure such as bronchoscopy is repeatedly performed;
- if the results of bronchoscopy do not show a complete picture of the pathological condition of the lungs and bronchi, the doctor recommends to undergo bronchography.
Diagnostic examination helps doctors in the shortest possible time to prescribe and, if necessary, adjust the therapy regimen and select the necessary drugs and treatment methods.
At the end of a comprehensive diagnosis, patients are assigned a therapy regimen. Due to the fact that the symptom of hemoptysis is often severe and alarming, pulmonologists can put the patient in a hospital. Launched pneumonia with blood threatens with pathologies such as pulmonary gangrene, the development of respiratory failure, endocarditis and others, therefore, the constant supervision of doctors in the hospital helps to prevent the development of complications.
Treatment of pneumonia in pregnant women and children is carried out only within the walls of the hospital. It happens that the pathology in these categories of patients is mild, then treatment at home is allowed, but with the daily observation of the woman and the child by the attending doctor and subject to all medical recommendations.
The treatment regimen for patients is always individual, as it depends on the patient’s age, concomitant diseases, and drug tolerance. The task of the attending physicians is to relieve a severe cough, relieve spasms, disperse thick mucus and stabilize the general condition of the patient. For this, antipyretics, mucolytics, antibacterial drugs are prescribed. To stop blood from entering the sputum, an oxygenation procedure and the use of drugs such as Tranexam and Cyclocapron are prescribed.
With intense bleeding, the task of doctors is to stop the situation, so the therapy will be different. If it also does not bring the desired result, then the doctors solve the problem with the help of surgery. In such cases, cauterization of damaged tissues or exposure to them with a laser is often prescribed.
In order to prevent an exacerbation of the pathology that provokes the appearance of blood particles in the sputum, a number of preventive measures must be followed. Since the patient’s body during pneumonia is poisoned by toxins and weakened by a febrile condition, it is important to adhere to bed rest and rest. Hemoptysis and other negative processes in the body reduce hemoglobin, so patients need to follow a certain dietary regimen during this period:
- food intake should be frequent. Portions should be kept small;
- the menu should include protein foods, dairy products, boiled vegetables and fresh fruits. It is better to limit carbohydrate foods temporarily;
- daily, the patient should receive broth with low-fat meats, beef liver, vegetable salads, fruit and vegetable juices, dried fruit compotes.
Decoctions and infusions of medicinal plants, such as yarrow, chicory, elecampane, celandine, chamomile, help well with inflammation. The patient must definitely give up smoking and drinking alcohol.
The prognosis of pneumonia with the release of blood with sputum when coughing depends only on the cause of the bleeding. A timely set of diagnostic and treatment measures in most cases leads to positive results and a speedy recovery.