Pneumonia is an infectious disease that affects the alveoli and interstitial tissue of the lungs. The inflammatory process provokes the accumulation of sputum in the affected area. The earlier treatment begins, the lower the risk of complications. Medicines for pneumonia are selected by a doctor. In doing so, he focuses on the results obtained during the medical examination.
The general therapeutic regimen includes drugs characterized by antiviral, antihistamine, anti-inflammatory, mucolytic , expectorant and antipyretic effects.
Pneumonia is classified according to several criteria:
- the place where the infection occurred (hospital, community-acquired);
- severity (mild, moderate, severe);
- type of pathogen;
- affected area.
With pneumonia, there are clinical manifestations such as severe cough, rough shallow breathing, pain in the sternum. The list of symptoms characteristic of pneumonia also includes general weakness, daytime sleepiness, chills, convulsive syndrome and hyperthermia. Through diagnostics, wheezing in the lungs and disturbances in the work of the cardiovascular system are detected. The likelihood of developing pneumonia is increased in newborns, infants, the elderly, adolescents and patients whose immunity is severely weakened.
Medicines for pneumonia
For complicated pneumonia, treatment is often prescribed pending diagnostic results. In this case, antibiotics are prescribed as the main medicine. To stop the inflammatory process at the first stage of therapy, antibacterial drugs of a wide spectrum of action are used, after which they are replaced with specialized antibiotics. To prevent the development of side effects, they are taken in parallel with medicines, which contain lactobacilli and probiotics. They have a beneficial effect on the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract.
In the treatment of pneumonia, antibiotics are used belonging to the following pharmacological groups:
Modern medicines for pneumonia are different from medicines that were previously produced. They are characterized by high efficiency, extended spectrum of action, and minimal number of side reactions. Antibiotics are prescribed if gram-positive or gram-negative bacteria have become the causative agent of pneumonia. Careful selection of medications is required in the case of bilateral pathology, which proceeds with a large number of complications.
Antibacterial drugs in pharmacies are sold in the form of tablets and an injection solution. Treatment should take place in full accordance with the recommendations of the attending physician. Only he can change the dosage, the order of admission and the duration of the course. Throughout the treatment, the patient needs to regularly undergo control studies. The results obtained after analysis and X-ray are necessary to assess the effectiveness of the prescribed therapy. The general condition of the patient is also taken into account.
Each antibacterial drug has its own list of contraindications. Particular care should be taken when choosing a medication regimen if, in addition to pneumonia, there are the following ailments in the anamnesis:
- obstructive diseases of the respiratory system;
- mental disorder;
- cardiovascular pathology;
- pulmonary insufficiency.
Use of fluoroquinolones
Antibiotics from this pharmacological group are used if the ailment was caused by a bacterial infection. Fluoroquinolones quickly penetrate the affected tissues. In their spectrum of action are both gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. The maximum concentration in the blood is recorded a few hours after taking the medication. Drinking fluoroquinolones is recommended before meals. The most effective drugs for pneumonia are Moxifloxacin , Levofloxacin , Moximak and Avelox .
Tetracyclines and macrolides
Tetracyclines are prescribed for mixed pneumonia (viral and bacterial at the same time). They are also used if the etiology of the disease remains unknown. Drugs from this group are rarely used today. This is due to a large number of contraindications, rapid addiction of the body and the ability to accumulate in functional tissues. It is strictly forbidden to give tetracycline and doxycycline to children under the age of 7 years. The same applies to pregnant women and patients suffering from partial renal and liver dysfunction.
Macrolides are used for pneumonia provoked by cocci, chlamydia and legionella . These drugs are rapidly absorbed. The risk of an allergic reaction and other side effects is negligible. Among the contraindications, liver diseases are distinguished. The list of drugs related to macrolides is quite extensive. In the treatment of right-sided and left-sided pneumonia, Clarithromycin , Sumamed , Azithromycin and Erythromycin are used.
These medicines are relatively safe. They are allowed to be prescribed in childhood and pregnancy. It should be noted that macrolides are safer than fluoroquinolones . Antibiotics of this type should not be taken concomitantly with penicillins.
Antibacterial medicines from the penicillin group can be of semi-synthetic and natural origin. The latter are active against pneumococci. When infected with gram-negative bacteria and staphylococci , semi-synthetic penicillins are used. Anti-inflammatory drugs can cause the appearance of such negative manifestations as dysbiosis, allergies and dyspepsia. Penicillins include Flemoxin , Amoxicillin and Mezlocillin . Antibiotics for the treatment of pneumonia are available in the form of tablets, injection and infusion solutions.
Treatment with cephalosporins
Cephalosporins are prescribed more often than other antibiotics to patients with a history of focal pneumonia. The spectrum of action of drugs belonging to different generations is different. Cefazolin has a good effect on the respiratory system. Second-generation drugs counteract Klebsiella and E.coli. Ceftriaxone and Cefotaxime help fight gram-negative bacteria. Modern antibiotics cannot be used if pneumonia is provoked by enterococci.
The drug Cefotaxime
Alternative medicine methods are included in the therapeutic regimen only after agreement with the attending physician. Remedies for pneumonia are prepared from the following ingredients:
- Washed oats (1 glass), milk (1 liter), honey, butter. Milk is put on a slow fire, then oats are added to it. It should be cooked for an hour. At the next stage, the composition is filtered. The remaining components are put into the ready-made mixture immediately before use. The medicine should be stored in the refrigerator.
Aloe with honey
- Aloe (leaves), honey, wine. Crushed agave leaves (250 mg) are combined with natural beekeeping product (350 mg) and cahors (500 ml). The mixture is placed in a glass jar, which is then left alone for 10 days. Then it remains only to strain the resulting composition. The product has soothing and absorbing properties. The medicine is taken for pneumonia and other colds before meals.
- Lemon (3 pieces), Cahors (200 g), walnut kernels (20 pieces), honey (0.5 l), aloe juice (300 g). First, the ingredients are prepared. Lemons are ground together with the peel, the kernels are ground into powder. All components are placed in an enamel pan and mixed thoroughly. The effective mixture is kept in a cool place, away from direct sunlight.
- Onions (300 g), dry white wine (0.6 l), honey (100 g). The remedy for pneumonia is insisted for 10 days. During this time, it must be mixed. At the last stage, the mixture is filtered. The medicine prepared according to this recipe is taken before meals.
Alternative methods for pneumonia are combined with physiotherapy procedures. Among the latter, inhalations and warming are especially distinguished. They can be done at home. They also adjust the diet and drinking regime. A person should eat more fresh berries, vegetables and fruits. Strong coffee and alcoholic beverages should be replaced with medicinal broths and natural juices.
The duration of the incubation period for pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia. On average, it ranges from 2 to 10 days. Pneumonia is characterized by the absence of age restrictions. Severe forms of the disease are treated in a hospital. Minor patients are subject to compulsory hospitalization. Adults with mild pneumonia can be treated at home. In any case, pneumonia should be treated under the guidance of a doctor.