Infectious asthma refers to chronic diseases of the respiratory system. It is accompanied by a number of symptoms, the degree of their manifestation depends on the action of internal and external negative factors.
It is very important to carry out timely diagnosis and treatment of the disease, to eliminate the effect of allergens. Only in this case can the patient’s condition be relieved.
Infectious form of asthma and its distinctive features
Most people with chronic pathological processes in the bronchi suffer from an infectious-allergic form of asthma. Most often, the disease occurs in patients after 30 years. It refers to a mixed type of disease, arises under the influence of external and internal provoking factors.
The disease develops against the background of existing acute respiratory viral infections or colds. The presence of an infectious process in the body serves as a powerful impetus for the development of allergic asthma. The symptomatology is growing and manifests itself as external allergens act.
With the active reproduction of pathogenic microorganisms in the bronchi, an inflammatory process begins to develop, the structure of their tissues changes. There is a strong swelling of the mucous membrane, because of this, the person does not receive the necessary oxygen, and suffocation begins. Against this background, the body’s defenses are significantly reduced, immunity is greatly reduced. When an external irritant enters, a severe allergy begins.
It is worth noting that this type of asthma is very rare among children. It is very important to diagnose the pathology in time and begin its treatment. In advanced cases, therapy is greatly complicated.
Causes and provoking factors
As described above, this type of asthma is infectious in nature. The reasons for the development of pathology are the simultaneous action of external and internal factors. The latter include pathogenic microorganisms. Untreated bronchitis, under the influence of external stimuli, develops into infectious-allergic asthma.
The main causes of the development of the disease, which are identified by doctors, are:
- genetic predisposition;
- chronic infectious process in the bronchi;
- bad ecology;
- professional activities associated with the presence of corrosive substances in the air;
- lung disease;
- improper nutrition;
- excess weight.
Bacteria and other microorganisms are often allergens. This is mostly true for molds. They tend to secrete spores, which, getting into the respiratory tract of a person, provoke suffocation. Attacks occur when the patient is in a room with mold.
Also, infectious-allergic asthma can be provoked by a long course of drug therapy. In this case, there is a tension of the respiratory muscles, the patient is constantly annoyed by a cough.
Often, external stimuli are nervous stress or intense physical exertion. In this case, the patient suffers from dry cough, however, taking only mucolytics , you can accelerate the further progression of this form of asthma.
Clinical presentation and symptoms
The symptomatology of an infectious-allergic form of bronchial asthma develops with the active action of provoking factors. There are several stages in the development of the disease:
- At the first stage, the disease has all the signs of rhinitis: the patient feels severe discomfort and itching in the nose, suffers from frequent sneezing and congestion.
- Under the influence of external stimuli, the symptoms of the disease manifest. At this stage, there is severe shortness of breath, cough, difficulty breathing on exhalation, sputum does not go away, the patient suffers from attacks of suffocation.
- At the stage of easing the symptoms of the disease, there is a productive cough with the release of a large amount of sputum. The patient feels much better, suffocation and other discomfort disappears. As a rule, this stage is achieved only by taking medication.
A feature of the course of this pathology is that coughing attacks are activated at night, when the patient takes a horizontal position. Because of this, he cannot get enough sleep, he becomes irritable. Often, the next morning, the head begins to hurt, and other signs of overwork appear.
It should be noted that during an acute attack, the patient’s temperature may slightly rise. After coughing, it is difficult for the patient to breathe, wheezing and pain in the chest are clearly traced.
The infectious-allergic form of bronchial asthma is very difficult to diagnose. The doctor who treats her is called a pulmonologist. At the first symptoms, you should immediately contact him for advice. After visual examination and collection of anamnesis, the patient is assigned a number of mandatory studies:
- laboratory blood tests to identify a possible infectious process;
- listening to the patient’s breathing (a patient with asthma has a clear wheezing breath);
- bacteriological examination of sputum;
- allergy tests .
One of the informative diagnostic methods is peak flowmetry . Using a special device, the patient’s breathing rate is measured during exhalation. In addition to basic research, it is very important to carry out differential diagnostics and exclude the presence of diseases similar in symptomatology (pathology of the heart, blood vessels, etc.).
It is worth noting that this disease is seasonal, and acute symptoms are observed in the cold season.
Features of the treatment of infectious asthma
Therapy of an infectious-dependent form of bronchial asthma consists in taking medications aimed at destroying the cause of the inflammatory process. The pathogen is identified by bacterial culture of sputum. At this stage, the bronchi are sanitized and antibacterial drugs of a wide spectrum of action are taken.
The course of treatment and dosage are selected by the doctor individually. Also, mandatory measures are taken to treat foci of inflammation in the oral and nasal cavity. All these actions relate to etiological therapy and are prescribed for the manifestation of asthma attacks and at the stage of exacerbation of asthma.
After the destruction of the infection, pathogenetic therapy is prescribed. It is performed at the stage of sputum formation and the onset of a productive cough. The patient is prescribed mucolytics , bronchodilators and glucocorticosteroids .
Together, they help relieve the symptoms of bronchial obstruction, improve the discharge of accumulated mucus. Many asthmatics are prescribed aerosol medications. They relieve attacks of shortness of breath, restore normal breathing.
A prerequisite for the treatment of such asthma is a visit to the physiotherapy room. The patient is prescribed physical therapy classes, a course of massage, etc. During the period of remission, recovery is shown in sanatoriums. There are special sanatoriums for the treatment of asthmatics. It will be very useful to visit the salt caves and use other methods of climatotherapy.
In most cases, patients with asthma are constantly monitored by a pulmonologist and are treated at an exacerbation stage.
It should be noted that an improvement in the condition of a patient with infectious-allergic asthma is observed only 3-5 days after the start of treatment. To relieve spasm in the bronchi, drugs from the group of bronchodilators are used . Treatment of children with such a diagnosis is carried out under strict medical supervision.
It is strictly forbidden to self-medicate, this leads to the development of serious complications and a worsening of the patient’s condition. It is important to remember that mucolytics are not recommended to be taken immediately before bedtime, as they promote the activation of the cough reflex and prevent the patient from fully sleeping. Drugs in this group are drunk a few hours before bedtime.
In case of infectious-allergic asthma, the patient’s immunity is greatly weakened, therefore, it is advisable to use various vitamin complexes and immunomodulators. They have a positive effect on the functioning of the body, accelerate the healing process.
To improve sputum discharge, inhalations with glucocorticosteroids or bronchodilators are prescribed. It will be useful to use decoctions based on medicinal plants with mucolytic , anti-inflammatory and expectorant effects. Folk remedies should be taken after prior consultation with your doctor. To relieve stress and nervous tension, experts recommend drinking chamomile or mint tea.
Since asthma belongs to the group of allergic diseases, the use of antihistamines will be mandatory in the complex therapy. Depending on the nature of the allergen, they are used in the form of tablets, capsules, injections. Also, for the early removal of the allergen from the body, enterosorbents are prescribed . For rhinitis or conjunctivitis, drugs are used in the form of drops. The course of treatment and dosage are selected by the doctor individually, based on the severity of the disease and symptoms. The purpose of this therapy is to completely eliminate the manifestations of allergies.
Be sure to monitor your diet and sleep patterns during the treatment period. Moderate physical activity, walking in the fresh air, good rest and nutrition are recommended. At the stage of remission, it is recommended to restrict the patient from the influence of potentially dangerous provoking factors. Treatment of children is carried out in the same way as for adults, with an adjustment of the dose and type of drug.
There are a number of rules, the implementation of which significantly reduces the risk of developing an infectious-allergic form of bronchial asthma in humans:
- avoid contact with potential allergens (smoke, animal hair, dust, etc.);
- eat properly;
- avoid nervous tension and stressful situations;
- timely treat colds;
- regularly ventilate the room, do wet cleaning;
- at the first symptoms, do not hesitate to contact a specialist.
In the presence of a genetic predisposition to bronchial asthma, it is necessary to carry out preventive measures that are aimed at reducing the impact of external and internal stimuli.
It is also recommended to avoid severe hypothermia and follow the rules of personal hygiene, this will help prevent the development of asthma.