Klebsiella pneumonia in infants

Klebsiella pneumonia in infants can be triggered by an insufficient amount of protective antibodies. This pathology is considered nosocomial. At risk are children whose immunity is greatly weakened. The disease is especially dangerous for newborns and infants. The pathogen is present almost everywhere. Fighting it with antibacterial drugs is useless. They will not have a beneficial effect on this type of pneumonia. Lack of timely therapy is fraught with serious complications and death.

According to the classification of the causative agent of this type of pneumonia, it is classified as enterobacteriaceae. Microorganisms inhabit many vital organs. There are eight varieties of Klebsiella. For an infant, the most dangerous microbes that provoke the appearance of pneumonia, and Klebsiella oxytoca. The latter affects the meninges, urinary ducts, joints and organs of vision.

In the patient’s history, diseases provoked by opportunistic pathogens often appear. The child’s condition depends on the functionality of the defense mechanism. In newborn babies, all vital systems are not fully formed. Klebsiella quickly enters the body. This pathogen is classified as anaerobic gram-negative bacteria. It is distinguished by its small size and rod-like shape. Klebsiella maintains its viability for a long time, being in food, kidney and water. Resistance to external factors is due to the formation of a special capsule.

The pathogen is sensitive to disinfectants; it also dies when boiled. Pneumonia occurs when Klebsiella enters the lungs. Difficulties appear already during differential diagnostics. The symptoms that Klebsiella oxytoka provokes are similar to those caused by diseases of the gastrointestinal tract. The sooner treatment begins, the more chances for a complete recovery of the mucous membranes. The general condition of the newborn may worsen if there is a history of dysbiosis or other intestinal diseases.

Klebsiella pneumonia is most often picked up by an infant in medical institutions. It often accompanies the underlying disease. A healthy person can get infected from a carrier of the infection or a sick person. The causative agents of pneumonia enter the child’s body as a result of his contact with adults, household items, dirty toys.


Weakened babies are at risk. Infection can occur both during and after childbirth. During this period, the baby is extremely sensitive to negative environmental factors. To prevent the development of Klebsiella pneumonia, a pregnant woman must follow all the recommendations of the attending physician. The disease can be triggered by the following reasons:

  • lack of vitamins, minerals, micro- and macroelements;
  • violations of hygiene rules;
  • unsanitary conditions in the maternity hospital;
  • exposure to allergens;
  • taking antibacterial drugs;
  • imbalance of microflora;
  • decreased immunity;
  • bowel disorder.

All of the above factors are divided into two categories: external and internal. Klebsiella can cause not only pneumonia, but other diseases as well. Among them are gastritis, sepsis, enteritis, diseases of bones and joints, rhinitis, meningitis. The list also includes sinusitis, conjunctivitis, cystitis, vaginitis and pyelonephritis. The bacteria that caused inflammation can enter the body in several ways: airborne droplets, contact-household, fecal-oral, food. The list of dangerous products includes water, milk, meat, fresh fruits and vegetables. Pneumonia is either primary or secondary. Pleura often appears in the affected area; necrotic foci and hemorrhages may appear.


Klebsiella can be found in the digestive flora, on the mucous membranes lining the airways, and on the baby’s skin. A healthy person has no more than 105 microbes in one gram of feces. The following symptoms indicate an infection:

  • regurgitation;
  • general malaise;
  • intestinal colic;
  • hyperthermia;
  • flatulence;
  • coughing;
  • upset stool;
  • dyspepsia;
  • bloating;
  • separation of “rusty” sputum;
  • slowing down the reaction;
  • painful sensations in the abdomen;
  • loss of appetite.


Often there is dehydration of the body, because of this, the child greatly loses weight. Cyanosis of the skin indicates a deterioration in general well-being. Klebsiella activation occurs in the gastrointestinal tract. The weaker the baby, the more intense the signs of infection. Klebsiella pneumonia is characterized by an acute course. Treatment should be under the supervision of a doctor.

In the absence of timely therapy, complications develop, among them sepsis, toxic hepatitis, meningitis, encephalitis and myocarditis are distinguished. The child’s condition may worsen due to the inflammatory process in the soft tissue area. Klebsiella pneumonia is often accompanied by conjunctivitis and chronic rhinitis.

Required analyzes

To identify Klebsiella pneumonia, the patient is prescribed clinical studies based on the following biomaterials:

  • feces;
  • urine;
  • blood;
  • sputum.

The patient’s feces are characterized by a yellow-green color and a liquid consistency. Undigested particles and blood streaks may be present. If bacteria in the feces is a variant of the norm, then Klebsiella in the urine of a child indicates an infectious infection. Chemical tests will give an accurate result only if all the rules for collecting urine are followed.

If symptoms characteristic of Klebsiella pneumonia appear, the patient should immediately consult a doctor. The type of causative agent of pneumonia is determined based on the results of bacterial sowing. The diagnostic examination must include the analysis of secreted mucus, biochemical blood test, x-ray. The doctor will definitely study the number of antibodies that can resist Klebsiella, and the sensitivity of the pathogen to antibiotics.


When prescribing therapy, the severity of the disease must be taken into account. With pneumonia of a Klebsiella nature, a newborn child and an infant are prescribed medications and physiotherapy procedures. The list of necessary medicines contains:

  • prebiotics;
  • antiseptics;
  • enzymes;
  • bacteriophages;
  • synbiotics.

Thanks to these medicines, the microflora of the gastrointestinal tract is restored and the functioning of the respiratory system is stabilized. Each remedy has its own contraindications and side effects, so a specialist should deal with their selection. With dehydration of the body, the patient is prescribed Regidron.

Antibacterial drugs are prescribed only for severe Klebsiella pneumonia. The most effective antibiotics are aminoglycosides, penicillins and cephalosporins. They are characterized by low toxicity. Immunity is strengthened through immunostimulants.

A gentle diet is of great importance in the treatment of pneumonia. Easily digestible foods are introduced into the diet of a nursing mother. The therapeutic course lasts for 2-3 weeks, pneumonia should be treated in a hospital. Home remedies will not have the desired effect. Self-medication is strictly prohibited. With Klebsiella pneumonia, it is allowed to use alternative methods. They must be pre-approved by a doctor. Ignoring his recommendations is fraught with side effects in the child.


To prevent the appearance of pneumonia in infants, they are guided by the norms of infection control. They are pretty simple:

  1. The medical staff wear special clothing and footwear.
  2. Household items and toys that a child picks up should be handled regularly.
  3. Food must be stored in full compliance with regulations.

Parents should understand that a nursing baby less than a year old should not come into contact with pets. Excessive sterility can only harm a healthy baby. If the infant is severely weakened, the risk of developing pneumonia increases significantly. In any case, when caring for a small child, adults must comply with all sanitary requirements.

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