In the body, everything is interconnected. And any disease of the internal organs is reflected in the mouth and teeth. Children are a special group of patients in whom these manifestations are more pronounced and the consequences provoked by the underlying disease have an aggressive course. One of the clearest examples of the negative impact on the condition of the teeth in children is bronchial asthma, and this effect can be mutual.
Bronchial asthma: the urgency of the problem
Today, bronchial asthma – The problem of doctors and patients from many countries of the world. And the number of patients with a diagnosis increases from year to year. In addition, there is an increase in the number of complications, cases of severe course.
If we look at the statistics, in Russia about 7 million people suffer from bronchial asthma, and approximately 1 million patients have a severe illness. If we consider the incidence among children, according to various sources, about 10% of children in Russia suffer from some form of the disease. The highest rates of disease are noted in metropolitan regions: Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Bronchial asthma can manifest itself and form at any age: in more than half of the patients, the disease forms up to 10 years of age, in one third – in the age group of 20-40 years.
The main manifestations of asthma will be asthma attacks associated with bronchial obstruction.
Effect on teeth in children
In children with a diagnosis of bronchial asthma, the barrier properties of the mucous membrane in the mouth decrease, which explains the wide spread of diseases of the teeth and periodontal tissues. There are also reliable data showing the presence of violations in the immune system in children with a diagnosis that only simplifies the negative impact of pathogenic flora on dental status.
Parents should understand that children – unique patients, their anatomical and physiological features facilitate the development of caries. This can be explained with a thinner enamel, which continues its mineralization process until approximately 12-18 years (depending on the tooth), therefore, the enamel is less resistant to the action of bacteria that cause caries. The effect on the immunity of the underlying disease also adds fuel to the fire. It turns out that children are almost doomed. Indeed, the analysis of oral diseases in children with a diagnosis is simply amazing: in addition to the plural form of caries, persistent inflammation of the gums and a rapid transition to complications are recorded.
Dentists note that the impact on the oral cavity in children is not only the disease itself, but also drugs used in the treatment.
What medicines are prescribed for children?
Both the asthma attack and the relatively quiet period of the disease require prescription of drugs, in particular, glucocorticosteroids. With their appointment, in addition to a positive therapeutic effect, these drugs contribute to the reduction of the natural protective barrier of the mucous membrane and impaired immune function.
Despite the fact that the study of the medical effect on the dental status of children involved many authors for a long time, until there is no accurate and reliable data, what effect hormonal drugs have on the mucosa and teeth in children.
The aim of multiple studies was not only to study the results of the therapy, but also to predict and find ways to prevent negative consequences and prevent complications.
Study of dental status
In a study conducted by Russian scientists, more than 40 children with bronchial asthma of varying severity were studied. All patients underwent a thorough and comprehensive study of the underlying disease and evaluation of the dental status, followed by filling out an individual card.
Dentists were interested in the following indicators:
- general examination: determination of the type of respiration, existing bite pathology, etc .;
- the prevalence of dental caries on dental indices: the teeth of children were carefully examined, the means for diagnosing latent caries or its initial forms were used;
- quality assessment of oral hygiene – was determined using hygiene indices;
- the degree of bleeding gums;
- enamel resistance to cariogenic bacteria;
- determination of pH of mixed saliva;
- study of the composition of the microflora of the oral cavity.
The obtained data were carefully analyzed, and each verdict was rendered for each item.
Analysis of the data showed a high prevalence of caries and its complications: on average, 5-8 carious teeth were found in each child, indicating a blooming form of caries. In bronchial asthma, rapid formation of plaque is noted, largely due to the formation of xerostomia (dry mouth).Despite the selection of hygiene products and items, training in proper cleaning of children’s teeth and control by parents, hygiene indicators were low.
One of the frequent complaints in the dentist’s chair in children with asthma is persistent candidal stomatitis. In many ways, this flow contributes to the increased acidity of the pH of the oral cavity, which averaged 7.19. A critical pH value of 6.7 is known, at which the flowering form of caries is formed.
The results obtained reliably prove the risks for dental status in children with bronchial asthma and its treatment. In accordance with this, it became necessary to search for an effective complex of therapeutic and preventive measures.
General recommendations were made by dentists:
- professional teeth cleaning: removal of dental deposits, tooth brushing with professional toothpastes – every 2-3 months;
- tooth saturation in children with minerals: a complex of calcium, phosphorus and fluorine;
- conducting a controlled teeth brushing procedure: brushing a child’s teeth in a dentist’s office, monitoring its quality using plaque staining pills — in this way, the child and parents can see how well the cleaning has been done. After the dentist shows how to properly brush your teeth on a large model. To consolidate the quality of the results in the learning process parents are connected.
Drawing up a plan for treatment-and-prophylactic measures includes an individual selection of inhaled hormonal drugs with the control of its dose by an allergist and pulmonologist.
All of the above activities can not only reduce the risks to the dental health of the child, but also improve the quality of life of young patients.