Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the respiratory tract, which increases their sensitivity to numerous irritants. The main manifestation of the disease is paroxysmal disorders of bronchial conduction, which are clinically expressed in repeated episodes of suffocation, cough and wheezing.
Asthma is characterized by heavy breathing, choking, coughing. But asthma has a different effect on every person. It can be easy, only occasionally recalling itself, and sometimes its course is almost constant and difficult. It can threaten a person's life.
Bronchial asthma: causes of the disease
The reasons for the development of the disease today remain ambiguous.
In modern medicine, there is the term "trigger", which means an irritant that provokes asthma attacks.
Each patient can have its own set of triggers, the most common of which are:
- any dust
- traffic fumes,
- sharp fluctuations in temperature and humidity,
- aerosol products for household chemicals, etc.
On sick, inflamed bronchi, which are very sensitive and easily amenable to irritation, triggers are especially acute. In this case, they cause a sharp reaction, pain, spasm. Despite the fact that there are many different stimuli, most experts are now inclined to assert that the main root of evil is the extraordinary sensitivity of the body to the effects of certain environmental factors. What is designated as an allergy. Such asthma is called allergic or atopic. In some cases, the patient never had allergic manifestations, but suddenly bronchial asthma began to develop. Its development can contribute to the often recurring severe viral infections. They led to a decrease in immune status, against the background of which an incorrect reaction of the receptors of the bronchial tree developed. This is immunological asthma.
Sometimes an attack occurs under the influence of cold moist air, changing weather conditions or unusual physical activity. Such asthma is called physical stress asthma.
But the main, main reason is a genetic defect. Incorrect formation of some genes causes a violation of metabolic processes in the cell. Indeed, normal metabolism is a wall that protects many of our organs, including the bronchi. If this wall is strong, then it is difficult to break through it - even with allergens, even with physical overload, if frail, then any disease easily penetrates through it and reaches its goal.
Bronchial asthma: classification
According to the classification, asthma is considered as:
I. Mostly allergic asthma:
- Allergic bronchitis.
- Allergic rhinitis with asthma.
- Atonic asthma.
- Exogenous allergic asthma.
- Hay fever with asthma.
II. Allergic Asthma:
- Idiosyncratic asthma.
- Endogenous non-allergic asthma.
III. Mixed asthma (a combination of signs of allergic and non-allergic asthma)
IV. Unspecified asthma:
- Asthmatic bronchitis.
- Late asthma.
Allergic (atopic) asthma
Allergic (atopic) asthma is the most common type of disease. Allergy is an unusual increased sensitivity of the body to the effects of some, sometimes the most unexpected environmental factors. They are called allergens.
When external factors come into play, which by themselves, without a genetic predisposition, cannot cause the disease, then asthma is manifested.
Recent studies show that if one of the parents suffers from an allergic disease, then the child's possibility of developing it is 25%, if both parents are allergic, then the figure rises to 40% .- When other relatives were sick in the family: grandmother, grandfather, aunts, uncles, then the likelihood of getting sick increases. But the disease itself is not inherited, but a predisposition to it. Whether this predisposition will manifest itself or not will largely depend on the conditions and manner of human life. Especially in his early years. But according to medical practice, inherited genes can occur at any age. In some, allergies develop from early childhood, some associate the onset of the disease with taking medications, the appearance of an animal in the house, stress, a cold, moving to a different climate zone, etc. The path by which the allergy is inherited is not completely clear. It is believed that only genes are responsible for the development of allergies and asthma; there is evidence to the contrary.
Recently, fixing an allergen has been noticed when the human body gets used to some product and begins to react, reject it.
The increased reactivity of the bronchi, and often the upper respiratory tract - organs easily vulnerable and constantly in contact with harmful environmental factors, but with a powerful and finely organized defense system, suggests that this increased reactivity is based on local breakdown of the protection system, and first of all line of immune defense.
Allergens are to blame, that is, those same substances that cause such a nonspecific reaction in the body.
Even a very small concentration of allergen, which can cause an asthma attack, and the speed of the bronchospastic reaction.
It is customary to divide allergens provoking asthma into 2 large categories:
Non-infectious substances are substances that are in close proximity to humans. This is house dust. Most allergens that cause asthma attacks are carried in the air. In approximately 30-40% of patients with bronchial asthma, hypersensitivity to the allergen from house dust is detected. This dust is not uniform. It consists of a variety of components. The most harmful and active component are dermatophagoid ticks that breed in the fall and spring. The culprit is not even the tick itself, but its excrement. They are in carpets, and in blankets, and in pillows, and in curtains, and in rugs that have not been sanitized, in the folds of mattresses, clothes, other places of dust accumulation, in dust behind skirting boards.
Book dust may also be a dangerous allergen component. It is better not to have books in rooms where a lot of time is spent: bedrooms, playrooms for children, etc.
Also harmful: microscopic fungi, dry remains of insects and flowers, upholstery.
Also non-infectious allergens include animal and plant origin: animal hair, feathers and down of birds, pollen of trees and herbs. An allergy to plant pollen is called hay fever. It arises, as a rule, at the best time of the year - spring, early summer, when gardens and parks bloom, when the wind brings in the open windows the unique aromas of sticky leaves, flowers, wet grass.
Aerosols, powder, talcum powder, laundry detergent have especially strong irritating properties. Very sharp odors can cause a cough, because asthmatic bronchial tubes are ten times more sensitive to such irritants. The smell of paint, perfume, smoke from wood-heated stoves or tobacco smoke can also cause acute bronchospasm.
Also, a large group of allergens are food products that act on the immune system through the gastrointestinal tract. Especially if he's not okay. Symptoms of cholecystitis, cholecystopancreatitis, gastritis, or colitis are often found in patients with food allergies. Imperfect enzymatic processing of incoming food products leads to the absorption and entry into the bloodstream of whole proteins. They can be delayed by the vascular endothelium and cause sensitization.
The development of an allergic reaction at the level of the bronchopulmonary apparatus is possibly explained by the active metabolic function of the lungs.
The most dangerous foods:
- citrus fruits
- some berries (raspberries, strawberries).
- vegetable oils,
The category of non-infectious allergens can also include drugs:
- medicines taken orally, including: acetylsalicylic acid, analgin, iodine-containing drugs, etc.;
- injectable antibiotics: penicillin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, etc., injectable ACTH, vitamin B1, nicotinamide, novocaine, sulfa drugs, vaccines, serums, proteolytic enzymes, etc.;
- antibiotics inhaled for therapeutic purposes, proteolytic enzymes, vitamins, antihistamines, hydrocortisone, painkillers, etc.
To date, there are two main types of environmental pollution: industrial and photochemical smog. The first dominates large industrial areas and is the result of incomplete combustion of liquid and solid fuels. The second occurs in places where vehicles accumulate under the action of sunlight, which activates photochemical reactions in exhaust gases. These types of pollution are simultaneously present in large cities and industrial centers. The smog's chemical ingredients are sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, ozone, acids, and particulate matter.
The pollutants are also worrying today. Pollutants are various chemicals that, when accumulated in high concentrations in the atmosphere, can cause poor human and animal health. Sources of pollutants in human homes are heating appliances, kitchen stoves, fireplaces, synthetic and pressed coatings, adhesives, varnishes, paints. In addition to nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and sulfur dioxide, they emit formaldehyde and isocyanates. Among the most important pollutants is tobacco smoke containing more than 4.5 thousand different compounds (hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nicotine, etc.). These substances have the greatest impact on children, the disabled and the elderly, who spend a lot of time in apartments.
It was found that high concentrations of pollutants cause exacerbation of bronchial asthma and increase bronchial hyperreactivity. Especially dangerous is the concentration of harmful chemicals in the workplace. Pollutants are considered as a serious cause of exacerbation of bronchial asthma. However, the role of most of them in the etiology of this disease has not yet been studied. It is not known whether they are an independent cause of asthma or enhance the effect of other environmental factors - allergens, infections, harmful working conditions.
Occupational asthma can be defined as a reversible obstructive pulmonary disease caused by exposure to a patient of substances - allergens in his workplace. Due to the rapid development of the industry, the onset of asthma is increasingly associated with occupational conditions. Such asthma can develop both in patients previously suffering from asthma, and in people who do not have it. With occupational asthma, wheezing attacks can be noted, which are clearly related to working conditions, but only nightly asthmatic attacks can also occur. Thus, the relationship between asthma symptoms and occupational exposure can be veiled, therefore, with this type of asthma, as well as bronchopulmonary aspergillosis and aspirin-sensitive asthma, the doctor must be extremely careful in order to make a correct diagnosis.
If a person works in an enterprise where he has seizures, it is necessary to change his place of work. The same applies to people employed in the pharmaceutical industry and in contact with laboratory animals, especially rodents.
Asthma occurs in 6% of people in these professions.
There are professional factors that provoke the development of the disease.
- Asthma workers in the milling and baking industry. Allergen is flour.
- Asthma workers producing natural silk. Allergen - papillon dust (pollen covering the wings of a silkworm butterfly).
- Asthma of livestock breeders, vivarium workers, zoos and veterinarians. Allergen - wool and particles of the epidermis of animals.
- Asthma librarians. Allergen - library dust.
- Asthma hairdressers. Allergen - epidermis and human hair.
- Asthma workers producing castor oil. Castor tree bean dust has a very high allergenic activity.
- Asthma coffee workers. Allergen - dust of coffee beans.
- Asthma workers producing detergents. Allergens are detergents (enzymes). "Platinum" asthma. Asthma caused by complex platinum salts. Platinum metal dust does not cause asthma. "Manganese", "nickel", "chrome" asthma.
- Medicinal asthma. Allergen - medicinal dust in the workplace.
- Asthma workers in the woodworking industry. Allergen - wood dust (oak, red cedar).
- Asthma workers in the cotton industry.
- Asthma workers in the production of polyurethanes, foams, printing inks.
- Asthma workers in the production of rubber, plastics, epoxies, dyes, etc.
The effect of viral infection on the occurrence of bronchial asthma
Disputes about how to qualify the effect of a viral infection on the onset or development of bronchial asthma have been ongoing for a long time, and there are polar points of view of pulmonologists at different levels. Some argue, for example, that a viral infection is not the cause of asthma, but can contribute to its development, while others say that in adult patients, respiratory viral infections have little to do with asthma and the nature of the relationship between respiratory viral infection and the formation of asthma, as well as the contribution of infection to the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma is unknown. Still others believe that a respiratory viral infection can contribute to the development of chronic bronchitis or bronchiolitis in children with the subsequent formation of bronchial asthma in 50% of them, while the fourth completely deny the influence of infectious factors, while the fifth recognize them as the leading role in the development of this disease. There are many points of view. And this is no coincidence. Two very significant factors interfere with solving the problem and determining conclusions: firstly, the variety of infectious agents and, secondly, differences in the response of patients with asthma to them.
This can be said that various infectious agents - viruses, bacteria, fungi, can cause the manifestation or exacerbation of bronchial asthma. Most often this happens in adults - about 35-40 years. The immediate cause is usually the occurrence or exacerbation of chronic respiratory diseases, acute and chronic bronchitis, pneumonia, tonsillitis, sinusitis, acute respiratory viral diseases, etc.
Attacks of suffocation in patients with infectious-dependent bronchial asthma occur gradually, last longer, are worse stopped (relieved) by adrenostimulants. Even after resolving the attack, the patient has hard breathing with extended expiration and dry rales of low timbre in the lungs. Attacks of suffocation occur mainly at night. Often, asthma symptoms are combined with symptoms of chronic bronchitis. Such patients have a persistent cough, sometimes with mucosal mucus, body temperature is elevated. Often in the evening there is a chill, a feeling of chilliness between the shoulder blades, and at night - sweating, mainly in the upper back, neck and neck.
It is rare, in about 0.5-1% of patients, and occurs at a certain stage of the course of bronchial asthma, that is, it is secondary. This is a form of the disease that occurs as a result of an increased reaction of patients to drugs - lung tissue antigens.
It occurs exclusively in patients with endogenous asthma. This syndrome causes intrabronchial growth of Aspergillus fungi. Mushrooms do not invade the host tissue, but remain viable while in the lumen of the bronchi; apparently, the bronchial secret serves as a breeding ground for them. The presence of fungi in such abundance induces the development of a hypersensitivity reaction in the host.
The presence of bronchopulmonary aspergillosis should always be suspected when a patient with endogenous asthma worsens symptoms, develops pulmonary pulmonary infiltrates, signs of central bronchiectasis, etc. The disease is difficult, requires careful laboratory tests and long-term medical supervision.
Some of those suffering from bronchial asthma are hypersensitive to aspirin and other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs - NSAIDs. Such cases from 5 to 20%. Such people can instantly have an asthma attack if a person takes a pill of a similar drug.
In many patients, the reaction to drugs is not the only one, the so-called triad of symptoms develops, where there is a combination of bronchial asthma, recurring nasal polyps and intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs.
Among patients with bronchial asthma treated in the department for a year, intolerance to NSAIDs was about 10.8%.
It is strictly forbidden for a patient with aspirin asthma to take:
1. Drugs related to antipyrine, analgin (metamizole sodium), amidopyrine, propiphenazone - the pyrazolone series, as well as drugs containing them in their composition
- Antipyrine - blefamide.
- Amidopyrine - aminophenazone, pyramidone, anapirin, antasman, arbide, pentalgin, pyralan, picrofen, reopyrin, orgapirin, pyrabutol, theofedrine, cybalgin.
- Sodium metamizole - analgin, devalgin, ilvagin, nebagin, novalgin, nobol, nosan, optalginta, spazdolzin, toralgin, analginhinin, anapirin, andipal, baralgin, veralgan, zologan, maxigan, minalganzin, novgan, pigangan, novpagan, novgan piafen, pyranal, remidon, reedol, spazvin, spazgan, spaz-malgin, spazmalgon, tempalgin.
- Propiphenazone - gevadal, caffetine, pivalivalgin, saridone, spasmoveralgin.
2. Preparations related to acetylsalicylic acid (aspirin) and containing acetylsalicylic acid
- Anopyrin, apo-asa, asalgin, ask-ratiopharm, aspilayt, aspirin oops, aspizol, aspro-500, acezal, acenterin, acetylsalicylbene, acetal pH-8, acylpyrin, bufferin, jasprin, catalgix, catalgin colic, naphthalene, col, novasen, novosan, plidol, ronal, salorin, sprit-lime, alcohol, anapirin, alkazeltzer, ascofen ring N, ascopar, aspalgin, aspro C forte, asfen, acecelisin, acifein, coficil, novacephalgin, olddon, olddon, perdolan, presocyl, solucetyl, sedalgin, tempalgin, tomapirin, fortalgin, fensik, citramon, citrapar, excedrine.
3. Other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and drugs containing them in their composition
- Diclofenac sodium, diclofenac potassium, indomethacin, sulindac, ibuprofen, naproxen, piroxicam, ketoprofen, flurbiprofen, thiaprofenic acid, diflunisal, phenamates - mefenamic and flufenamic acids and preparations containing them (lanagesic).
4. Tartrazine - E102
- Tartrazine is an acidic yellow dye, similar in its chemical structure to aspirin; often used in the pharmaceutical industry. Do not take yellow preparations (tablets, pills) or coated with a yellow membrane - no-shpa, tavegil, ketorol, other yellow colored preparations.
What drugs can be taken for an asthma patient:
If necessary, analgesic or antipyretic therapy may be recommended taking paracetamol (acetaminophen, panadol, efferalgan), solpadein, tramadol (tramal) - in the absence of intolerance to them.
Asthma "physical effort"
Any physical exertion causes a completely natural respiratory failure, but in the case of bronchial asthma, an asthma attack may develop - this is asthma of physical effort, or afterload bronchospasm. The grounds for isolating asthma of physical effort into an independent form of bronchial asthma are not enough. But this does not mean that such a syndrome can be treated with less attention.
Asthma of physical effort is characterized by the development of an acute attack 2-5 minutes after the end of the load. The severity and duration of bronchospasm can be different: from mild difficulty breathing for 15-20 minutes, passing on its own without the use of bronchodilators, to severe bronchospasm that does not release within an hour.
According to various researchers, about 70% of adults and 90% of children with bronchial asthma suffer from physical effort asthma.
During exercise, breathing becomes more frequent - hyperventilation occurs, which dries and cools the bronchial mucosa. Such minimal irritation is enough for the bronchi to respond with a spasm. Post-loading bronchospasm provokes to a large extent running, playing football, basketball, but swimming is well tolerated in most cases. Preliminary warm-up prevents acute bronchospasm from a pronounced load. During a prolonged exacerbation of asthma, some patients may experience shortness of breath with any, even slight physical exertion. This is no longer associated with hyperventilation, but rather with insufficient ventilation of the lungs, since air cannot pass freely through the bronchi and oxygen does not enter the body in sufficient quantities. An attack of suffocation, which develops after significant physical exertion, and shortness of breath with minor physical exertion are of a different nature.
Adverse weather conditions may cause exacerbation of bronchial asthma. Their negative effect is due to both a direct effect on the respiratory tract and a change in the concentration of allergens and pollutants in the air. Solar radiation and calmness contribute to the formation of photochemical smog, and cold and foggy weather - industrial.
Climatic factors - temperature, humidity, strength and direction of the wind, have a significant impact on the nature of the vegetation, the occurrence and course of pollinosis. The transfer of plant pollen is carried out by the wind. Ultraviolet radiation increases its ability to cause allergic reactions. Therefore, patients with hay fever, as a rule, do not tolerate sunny windy weather. Patients with fungal sensitization are also meteosensitive. The well-being of these patients often worsens in wet weather, especially in late summer and early autumn, which is associated with an increase in the concentration of fungal spores in the air.
Any sharp change in weather or ambient temperature can cause an acute asthma attack. High air humidity or, conversely, very low humidity can also be factors in exacerbation of asthma.
A major role in the occurrence of asthma is played by allergens, infection and harmful working conditions. The sensitivity of the respiratory tract of patients to the action of these factors is increased by pollutants and adverse weather conditions. The latter lead to exacerbation of asthma.
Symptoms of bronchial asthma
The main symptom of bronchial asthma is an asthma attack, which occurs both when the allergen is exposed to the body and when the trachea and large bronchi receptors are irritated by some non-allergic factor (cold, pungent smell, etc.). An attack of suffocation is usually preceded by a bronchospasm, which begins with a feeling of stuffiness in the nose, heaviness in the chest and is accompanied by a dry cough. In the presence of concomitant diseases, an asthma attack develops gradually, with a worsening of the course of bronchitis or pneumonia, against which bronchial asthma occurs.
The attack of suffocation consists of three periods:
- the period of the precursors,
- high season,
- period of reverse development.
The period of the precursors of the attack occurs several minutes, hours, and sometimes days before the attack and is manifested by symptoms that are different in nature and intensity: vasomotor reactions from the nasal mucosa, often manifested by profuse separation of the liquid watery secretion and sneezing, sometimes a feeling of dryness in the nasal cavity, itchy eyes, paroxysmal cough, difficulty in sputum discharge, shortness of breath, sometimes a peculiar sensation of "easy and free breathing". In addition, in this period, itchy skin may appear in the chin, neck, interscapular region, with an irresistible desire to scratch. These symptoms may be accompanied by headache, fatigue, nausea and indigestion, excessive diuresis. An attack of bronchial asthma can be preceded by irritability, mood changes, mental depression and gloomy forebodings. In some patients, on the contrary, a cheerful mood appears.
During the height of the choking is accompanied by a feeling of contraction, compression behind the sternum, which does not allow breathing freely. Sensations of shortness of breath and contraction in the chest can occur suddenly, in the middle of the night or at other times of the day, and in a few minutes achieve very great strength. In this case, an attack of bronchial asthma develops without a period of precursors. Inhale becomes short, exhale is usually slow, convulsive, 2–4 times longer than inspiration. The exhalation is accompanied by loud, prolonged, wheezing, heard in the distance. In some patients, both an inhalation and an exhalation are difficult during an attack.
Trying to ease breathing, the patient takes a forced position, in which a feeling of lack of air and suffocation less worry him. The patient sits leaning forward, resting his elbows on his knees or resting his hands on the edge of a chair or bed, catching air while breathing. Speech is almost impossible, with the exception of short, jerky phrases. The patient is worried, scared and suffering.
At the same time, his face is puffy, pale, with a bluish tint, covered with cold sweat, expresses fear and anxiety. Nose wings swell when inhaled. Chest at maximum inspiration. The muscles of the shoulder girdle, knitting needle and abdominal wall are involved in breathing. Intercostal spaces and supraclavicular fossa retract when inhaling.
With an attack of suffocation, the chest is in the maximum inspiratory position, and the diaphragm is flattened and its dome is low, during inhalation, the lower parts of the chest are drawn inward. The cervical veins are dilated.
Wheezing during an attack is interrupted by coughing, which in some patients is accompanied by the relaxation of sputum, after which breathing becomes easier. In other cases, sputum is completely absent or it is thick, viscous, in a small amount, it is difficult to excrete. Sputum is usually sticky and viscous, sometimes frothy. It can contain dense white balls and threads, which sometimes have a branching appearance and are casts of mucus, which was in the smallest bronchi and stood out when the attack subsided.
In some cases, during an asthma attack, the temperature rises to 37–37.5 ° С.
Breathing is slowed down to 10-12 breaths per minute, in some patients, on the contrary, it is accelerated, without a pronounced pause between inspiration and exhalation. When listening to the lungs against the background of weakened breathing during inhalation and especially during exhalation, a lot of dry, wheezing rales of different colors are heard. The pulse is weak, fast. Sometimes 20-30 mm RT. Art. systolic blood pressure decreases and quite often by 10-12 mm RT. Art. diastolic pressure rises. In some patients, blood pressure tends to increase.
The reverse development of the attack can end quickly, without any visible consequences from the lungs and heart. After the attack, the tension relaxes, the mood rises. Patients are thirsty, some are very hungry, everyone wants to rest. In other cases, the reverse development of the attack can last several hours or even days, when difficulty breathing, general malaise, drowsiness, weakness, and depression persist.
Attacks of suffocation in many patients occur at night, when at a certain time, especially often at 3-4 o'clock, there is a feeling of tightness in the chest, suffocation, cough, shortness of breath and dry rales heard from a distance. Patients are forced to get up and normalize their condition by various means. Sometimes asthma attacks occur in the early morning hours and when the patient begins to get out of bed after a night's sleep.
There is a mild course, which is characterized by mild, not prolonged attacks of suffocation. They rarely happen: several times a month, quickly removed with special drugs. And in between, practically nothing bothers the patient. That is, between attacks "no syndromes of bronchial asthma are observed. This moment, by the way, quite often misleads the patient, because of which the visit to the doctor is postponed and postponed, while insidious asthma is gaining strength.
Moderate asthma is already more dangerous and palpable. Very often it occurs with an infectious-allergic form. A patient at this stage is characterized by a gradual exit from an attack of suffocation, slowing shortness of breath. Exacerbations of the disease are observed 1-2 times a week. In such patients, heavy breathing remains between attacks, its functions are impaired. At the same time, examinations show violations of bronchial patency, low inspiration, obstruction of small and medium bronchi. Frequent exacerbation and a long course of bronchial asthma in a patient leads in many cases to the development of pulmonary emphysema, and then to pulmonary failure. For a severe degree of the disease, frequent exacerbations, persistent symptoms, and a decrease in physical activity are characteristic.
The most dangerous form of exacerbation of bronchial asthma is the development of asthmatic status, which is characterized by persistent and long bronchial obstruction, i.e. bronchospasm with impaired drainage function - sputum discharge and discharge, and an increase in respiratory failure. Persistent and severe course of bronchial syndrome with asthmatic status is determined primarily by swelling of the mucous membrane of small bronchioles and their blockage with thick mucus.
Most often, the development of an asthmatic condition is facilitated by:
- Affected infection: pneumonia; acute bronchitis of bacterial, viral or mycotic (fungal) etiology; sinus infection; acute respiratory infection, including flu; pulmonary tuberculosis;
- Contact with allergens: massive, constant contact with household allergens, for example in the case of repairs in the apartment; massive contact with epidermal allergens (animal allergens), for example at a party; massive contact with pollen in patients with pollen bronchial asthma; the use of intolerable food in case of food allergies; an asthmatic condition develops against the background of urticaria, Quincke's edema, abdominal pain. It can also be the intake of intolerant drugs or a sharp abolition of the already familiar; Hymenoptera bites in case of insect allergy; specific immunotherapy in case of non-compliance with the methodology of its implementation or violation of a certain regimen by the patient;
- Other reasons: taking non-selective beta-blockers (obzidan) for concomitant diseases; non-compliance with medical prescriptions for patients taking anti-asthma drugs, especially refusal to take systemic corticosteroids.
Asthmatic status can be of the following stages:
The mild stage is usually characterized by a prolonged attack of suffocation, the formation of immunity to drugs, a violation of the drainage function of the bronchi. The attack of suffocation is not removed for 12 hours or more, the patient's condition is serious, the gas composition of the blood changes slightly: a moderate decrease in oxygen in the blood and an increase in the content of carbon dioxide can be observed.
The middle stage differs from the first stage with progressive violations of the bronchial drainage function - their lumen is filled with thick mucus, the formation of a dumb lung is above the sections of the lungs where wheezing was previously heard. There are sharp violations of the gas composition of the blood with arterial hypoxemia - a decrease in oxygen content, and hypercapnia - an increase in carbon dioxide content.
Moreover, the patient's condition is very serious - consciousness is inhibited, pale skin is covered with sticky sweat, tachycardia with a pulse rate of more than 120 beats per minute, blood pressure is slightly increased.
The severe stage is characterized by significant disorders of the central nervous system and the development of loss of consciousness as a result of a sharp change in the gas composition of the blood. With untimely treatment, asthmatic status can lead to very serious consequences.
Bronchial asthma: diagnosis
Sometimes it is necessary to draw conclusions about the patient's condition and make a decision in a matter of minutes. If a person is admitted to the doctor with an asthma attack or in asthmatic status, then there is no time for laboratory and other studies. Here, the doctor's qualification and the patient's ability come first, despite the difficult situation for him, to concentrate and reasonably answer the questions posed.
It is important to determine the duration of the disease. Clarification of the causes and circumstances that led to the last exacerbation is no less important, and the doctor should find out, and if possible, the patient should accurately identify what factors provoke him to have an asthmatic attack. Particular importance is attached to drug intolerance and allergies to them. After all, it is urgent to prescribe the main thing, there may be the only medicine that will relieve the attack, and not exacerbate it. To do this, the doctor asks the patient in detail what he has been treated with up to now, what is the total dose of the drugs, how he received them: inhalation or parenteral, and it is also very good for the patient to be able to determine and tell the doctor what and in which case it turned out to be more effective. Before a doctor at such a critical moment, there is a very difficult task: the fate of a person depends on its decision.
Asthma tends to be masked by a variety of pathologies. Some diseases of the larynx, chronic and acute bronchitis, croup, tumors of the trachea and bronchi, tuberculosis, pneumonia, whooping cough, diphtheria, etc. may complicate bronchospasm.
When the attack is removed, you should begin a comprehensive clinical examination, drawing up a complete picture of the disease.
It is important to consider that during the period of the exacerbation phase the signs of the disease are most clearly manifested. During remission, they disappear, and if the interval between seizures is large, then bronchial patency is fully or partially restored. Therefore, doctors do not make a final diagnosis after the first attack and even after the second.
By international consensus, it is customary to consider an asthma disease only if three episodes of bronchospasm or three episodes of dry, persistent, persistent cough have occurred.
The initial study complex is carried out by patients with asthma, regardless of the clinical form of the disease.
This complex includes:
- examination of the chest organs,
- Clinical and bacteriological examination of sputum.
Also, each patient suffering from a respiratory disease undergoes a spirographic study to establish the degree of impaired external respiration function, during the exacerbation period, the alkaline-acid balance is repeatedly studied. He measures the forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV).
Recently, special tests of respiratory functions have received special distribution.
Among them, the most revealing and at the same time uncomplicated peak flow test.
The change in peak flow has become an essential test for asthma patients. It is especially important in those clinical situations where the use of more complex methods is not available.
During the study, the patient inhales the maximum possible volume and then makes the maximum exhalation into the device. The measurement is performed during the first 100 ms of exhalation, so the patient does not need to exhale to the end (to the residual volume). Small volumes are also marked on the scale, so it can be used in children from the age of 3 years. The disadvantage of the device is that the exhalation must be done with great effort, so the peak flow meter is not used in non-contact and seriously ill patients.
Primary information is important not only for a preliminary judgment, but also for a final conclusion about the nature of the disease. The allergic nature of bronchial asthma is confirmed by changes in blood and sputum tests.
The overall clinical picture in comparison with the data of x-ray, electrocardiographic and spirographic studies allows us to solve the question of the severity of pulmonary and heart failure.
It is also important to identify allergens that cause asthma, although this is not always an easy task. In some cases, allergological research methods are carried out, which essentially can be divided into two groups. Some of them are used to confirm the allergic nature of asthma, others to identify allergens that provoke asthma. Sometimes a provocation is carried out with an inhaled antigen. This study is very revealing, but fraught with elements of danger and therefore is used with great care.
With complex symptoms, patients should be referred to pulmonary function tests. This is especially important for persistent symptoms, an inadequate response to treatment, or if the patient smokes. Symptoms are not always adequate for the severity of the disease. So in a patient with a limited number of complaints, there may be a severe violation of respiratory function, requiring intensive treatment.
Allergologists and pulmonologists are involved in the treatment of people suffering from bronchial asthma. The attending physician himself determines what kind of service the patient needs help with, and directs him to additional monitoring, diagnosis and treatment correction.
The task of allergists is to identify allergens to which the body of a particular person reacts, because of which this person has a particular allergic disease. Including, of course, bronchial asthma.
The task of pulmonologists is the treatment of all diseases of the bronchopulmonary system. Including, of course, and bronchial asthma.
Bronchial asthma and its treatment
The treatment technique is divided into two sections:
- attack therapy,
- strategic supportive care.
Most often, medications - bronchospasmolytics are used to stop an attack of bronchial asthma. They differ in the degree of impact, and pharmacologists of all countries are constantly working to improve them. But the task of these funds is the same - at the time of the attack, relieve spasm, relax the smooth muscles of the bronchi and eliminate swelling. Depending on the severity of the seizure, the general condition of the patient, his age, and other individual characteristics, the doctor chooses the most effective drug in a given case or a combination of drugs from a large number of drugs, which is not only possible, but in some cases even necessary.
Sympathomimetics lead among these drugs. They are divided into four groups depending on their action on adrenergic receptors - receptors of the autonomic nervous system.
Adrenaline and ephedrine belong to the first group — these are well-known and universal drugs. They quickly relieve spasms of the smooth muscles of the bronchi, reduce the increased secretion of sputum and swelling of the mucous membrane. And this is their significant advantage. However, not all patients tolerate these drugs well. For some, they cause high blood pressure, palpitations, heart pain, and other undesirable reactions. This is especially often observed in children and in people over 60 years of age. Adrenaline is currently of limited use. His appointment is resorted to only in cases where previous therapy with bronchospasmolytics, including other sympathomimetics, has not produced a noticeable effect. Adrenaline is most effective when administered subcutaneously. Only in extremely severe cases it is administered intravenously.
The second group includes norepinephrine, mesatone, phenylzfrin, sympathol. In small doses, they reduce swelling and block cramping. But their overdose is dangerous, and therefore, in clinical practice, these drugs are rarely used so far. There are a number of theoretical assumptions and claims of specialists that these drugs require a more detailed study, and then widespread use.
The third group of sympathomimetics is non-selective beta-stimulants, mainly they are derivatives of isopropyl radrenaline. They are characterized by a high effect of bronchodilation, that is, the expansion of the lumen of the bronchi obtained by the inhalation route of administration. The action of this group of funds begins quickly and lasts an average of 3-4 hours. However, this group of drugs causes a serious side effect, called "rebound syndrome." Its occurrence is also associated with the use of extremely high doses of the drug. The clinical manifestation of "rebound syndrome" is suffocation that is increasing in intensity.
The fourth group is the most promising - selective beta-2 stimulants. They are well tolerated by the inhalation route of administration, their bronchodilating effect lasts more than 4 hours and the cardiotoxic effect is minimized. These are medicines: terbutaline, berotek and salbutamol (ventolin). Terbutaline is especially popular now in both domestic and western medical practice. It gives a pronounced bronchodilator effect when used in the form of tablets and with subcutaneous and intravenous administration. However, it should be emphasized that the most effective route of administration remains inhalation. Selective beta-2 stimulants are advisable to use in the form of tablets in cases where patients do not tolerate inhalation well.
Also, for many years, xanthine derivatives - caffeine, theobromine and theophylline (aminophylline) have been used as drugs that relieve bronchospasm. They have a wide spectrum of action, affecting the central nervous system, peripheral blood circulation, increase the secretion of gastric juice, relax the smooth muscles of the bronchi, increase diuresis. But there are significant differences in their action. And the best in this series can be considered theophylline. Under the influence of it faster and deeper relaxation of the smooth muscles of the bronchi occurs. However, he, like other drugs of this order, can cause unwanted effects, such as insomnia, anxiety, migraine, tremor, muscle twitching, fainting, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, tachycardia, arrhythmia, hypotension. But on the other hand, with proper use, taking into account individual characteristics, each of these drugs is very important.
In the treatment of mild seizures, inhalation of a sympathomimetic through a metered-dose inhaler or nebulizer is used. In this case, one drug is used, for example terbutaline, berotek or salbutamol. At home, it is better to use an inhaler with a compressor.
It is important to remember that a combination of drugs can lead to an overdose, it is necessary to observe a doctor at their first use.
Improvement, after using the drug, should occur in about 30 minutes, but if it does not, you can enter another dose. If the attack is mild, sometimes patients are given drugs orally, i.e. in the form of tablets or syrup, such as clenbuterol. But this is only possible with a mild form of attack. Since the effect of taking is not immediately apparent: after 30-45 minutes.
But in more serious situations, when a person suffocates, and inhalation does not give an effect, it is better to use "first aid" drugs in the form of an injection: they are administered both subcutaneously and intravenously. When exacerbation of bronchial asthma is associated with an infection, antibiotic therapy is necessary taking into account an allergic history. For better sputum discharge expectorants are used.
In case of a severe attack, it is urgent to call an ambulance, whose doctor should immediately give an injection (intravenously or intramuscularly steroid preparations), and then inhalation of salbutamol or terbutaline.
If the condition stabilizes poorly, the peak flow rate is less than 100 l / min, the patient should be sent to the hospital. And here, oxygen will be added to drug treatment. It should be ensured that the oxygen that enters through the mask is moistened. Artificial ventilation can be carried out, as well as a course of maintenance therapy.
Contraindicated, no matter how you feel: insomnia, aggression, overexcitation - the use of sedatives. As soon as the seizure subsides, your nervous system will begin to bounce back to normal.
Addiction or addiction drugs "first aid" do not cause. When used correctly, they do not have a significant effect on the body. The drugs act quickly - after 3-10 minutes, and the duration of their action is about 4-5 hours. The effectiveness of the drug after use can be checked using a peak flow meter.
But using them too often can lead to side effects:
- sleep disturbance,
A clear dosage limit and special care should be observed in patients with the following concomitant pathology:
- angina pectoris;
- arterial hypertension;
- heart defects;
- history of cardiac arrhythmias;
- diabetes mellitus (drugs can cause hyperglycemia - there is a need for a new dosage regimen of insulin or oral antidiabetic agents);
- angle-closure form of glaucoma (intraocular pressure may increase);
- history of hyperthyroidism (thyrotoxicosis);
- uterine fibroids.
It should be noted that salbutamol (ventolin, salamol) and brikanil can be used in children under two years of age. For other drugs, restrictions on use are for children under two years of age.
When the marked exacerbation subsides and the onset of the remission phase, maintenance therapy is performed.
The main objectives of strategic therapy are:
- prevention of exacerbations of the disease,
- achievement of the most complete and long-term remission,
- maintaining the normal functioning of the patient.
In this case, if necessary, supportive drug therapy is used. Non-drug treatments are also widely used. This is specific hyposensitization - a decrease in hypersensitivity to allergens, acupuncture, chronotherapy, physiotherapy, speleotherapy, spa treatment, physiotherapy exercises, etc. With atonic (allergic) asthma, then in this situation, you must first take all measures aimed to remove environmental allergens and irritating agents.
Asthma Treatment - Pollinosis
If the patient has hay fever, that is, an allergy to pollen of plants, then one must be especially careful during the flowering period of plants. Several groups of allergenic plants (trees, cereals and weeds) and several periods or seasons of exacerbation of hay fever (spring, early summer and late summer) were distinguished. Plants dust from March to October inclusive. Depending on meteorological conditions, the timing of the start of plant dusting can shift by 5-10 days. In dry and warm weather, plants dust more intensively and allergy symptoms intensify. On cold days, pollen is emitted much less, but the flowering period of plants lengthens. The pollen concentration in the air decreases significantly during and immediately after rain, at high humidity, in calm weather - for a patient with pollinosis, these are safer days. In the morning hours (from 5 to 11 hours) the dusting intensity is maximum, by the evening it decreases, and is minimal at night.
Therefore, during the flowering period, it is recommended that patients prone to hay fever, go out on the street as little as possible, especially in the morning hours and windy weather, especially during the flowering of those responsible for their illness, from traveling outside the city. The apartment should be wet-cleaned as often as possible.
Before flowering, sometimes, in about two to four weeks, they take a course of treatment with histaglobulin - the drug contains human gamma globulin and histamine and increases the ability of the blood to withstand the allergen. And the whole season you need to take ascorbic acid at 0.5 g per day with meals, but only for adults who tolerate it well.
Household dust allergy treatment
If asthma is triggered by some other allergen, you also have to categorically fight it. If this is household dust, then it is necessary to carry out wet cleaning 2-3 times a week. Do not keep carpets and carpets in the apartment. Carpets are absolutely contraindicated for household allergies. You can use rugs that can be washed in hot water. It is advisable not to purchase upholstered furniture upholstered in fabric; Smooth surfaces accumulate less dust. Replace draped furniture with wood, plastic, vinyl or leather.
Also, the room should not have massive curtains. Curtains should be cotton or synthetic. Keep books only behind glass. It is recommended to use blinds. Soft toys should either be disposed of or washed. Avoid using anything that can collect and accumulate dust - macrame, tapestries, decorative pillows, etc. Do not use feather or down pillows and blankets; they should be replaced with those made of synthetic winterizer or other synthetic material.
It is necessary to purchase pillows and blankets that do not deteriorate from frequent washing in hot water. Bedspreads should be made of easily washable, lint-free fabrics. If the old mattress - replace it. The mattress should not contain feather, fluff or wool. The use of special mattresses with chemical additives - acaricides, prevents the reproduction of ticks.
Animal Allergy Treatment
When the pet's hair becomes the source of bronchial asthma, there's nothing to be done, you'll have to part with it. While the animal is in the house - there is practically no chance of a successful treatment. Moreover, you should not even go to a house where there is an animal whose hair makes you allergic, as well as to a zoo, circus.
Food Allergy Treatment
If there is a reaction to food allergens, it is important not to consume these foods. But first you need to establish exactly which ones. This is a very difficult task. After all, the digestion process lasts 8-12 hours, during which time patients eat different food, work, take medications, they have a good and bad mood, and it is naturally difficult to associate the occurrence of suffocation with a particular product. If patients can notice such a connection, then most often they point to other products that they took in time closest to the occurrence of an asthma attack. In any case, there is a whole range of products that are ordered to a person predisposed to allergies. These are honey, citrus fruits and drinks from them, strawberries, nuts, fish, red fruits and vegetables, chocolate, eggs, milk.
Eliminating provocative factors from the patient's life, as well as creating a normal psychological climate in the family and at work, one can hope for a stable and long-term remission and thereby reduce, stopping only at maintenance doses, drug therapy or even exclude it. If necessary, the doctor will pick up and prescribe drugs for the prevention of an attack. It can be corinfar, kordafen, verpamil, atrovent.
Reusable administration of bacterial allergens (auto-vaccines) in minimum doses, as well as antihistamines that relieve the manifestation of allergies are used to develop the body's resistance to allergens of microbes-sensitizers, as well as antihistamines that relieve the manifestation of allergies: sodium cromoglycate (intal), sodium nedocromil (tiled), ketotifen. All of them are good means of biochemical prophylaxis of bronchial asthma.
Bronchial asthma, in fact, is an inflammatory process, only the cause of this inflammation is not an infection, but a violation of the permeability of cell membranes. Therefore, anti-inflammatory drugs are most important to prevent exacerbation. These include hormonal drugs, including for aerosol use, and antagonists of leukotriene receptors, such as zafirlukast, montelukast, pranlukast and an inhibitor of the synthesis of leukotrienesileuton.
In the last decade, it was found out that during an attack caused by an allergen, and during physical exertion, including in cold air, and with the so-called "aspirin asthma", a sharp increase in the level of leukotrienes is observed. And synthesis inhibitors in this case partially or completely block the occurrence of bronchospasm. A sufficiently persistent effect occurs after a week of use in 2/3 of patients. Acolate can be used for any severity of bronchial asthma as a means of preventing seizures and facilitating their course. In addition to its independent use, acolate is well combined with antihistamines, such as clarithin, telfast, etc. This combination has worked well for hay fever and allergic rhinitis. In more severe cases, they are combined with glucocorticosteroids, including aerosol. This combination allows, as a rule, to reduce the dose of the latter.
In the treatment of children, drugs such as acolate are especially important when the question of the appointment of glucocorticoid drugs first arises. True, acolate is used only for children over 6 years old. Montelukast (dosage form - singular) in the form of chewing gum for children over two years of age is also used abroad.
However, not all patients respond equally to drugs of this group. About 1/3 of asthma patients do not respond to them. Therefore, the question of the need for long-term therapy should be decided after 2-3 weeks from the start of treatment.
Again, we warn about the impossibility of independent selection of drugs for bronchial asthma. All "strategic" decisions must be agreed upon, only then can success in treatment be possible.
With any difficulty in breathing, and this is what happens with bronchial asthma, it is typical for a person to rush from one extreme to the other in order to facilitate breathing. And it is this, combined with the advent of new classes of drugs, that leads to life-threatening conditions. According to statistics from the last 20 years, all the most dangerous situations in patients, especially in adolescents, are caused not so much by bronchial asthma as by independent uncontrolled use of drugs.
The treatment of infectious asthma has its own characteristics. It is very important to timely repair the inflammation of the sinuses, as well as eliminate the curvature of the nasal septum. As a rule, such patients have to undergo a small operation. If the disease is associated with an infectious and inflammatory process in the bronchi and lungs, then a set of treatment and prophylactic measures is needed to suppress this process. First of all, this is, of course, drug therapy. It is known that broncho-pulmonary infection is often one of the causes of the severe course of bronchial asthma and its transition to an asthmatic state.
If signs of exacerbation of chronic bronchitis or chronic pneumonia are detected, broad-spectrum antibacterial drugs are especially necessary. In addition to antibiotics, sulfonamide drugs are shown, prolonged (sulfadimethoxin, etc.) and combined (biseptol, bactrim), as well as nitrofurans. When a viral infection affects the course of bronchial asthma, antiviral drugs can be used: interferon, viferon, arbidol, epsilon-aminocaproic acid, remantadine.
The purpose of mucolytic and expectorant drugs: mucosol, mucaltin, mucodine, bromhexine, ambrohexol, trisolvin, mineral salts, etc. - can significantly improve the drainage function of the bronchi and lungs and helps to reduce the inflammatory process and improve breathing.
The impact of an acute or chronic infection on the human body leads to a decrease in the function of the immune system in patients, which in turn leads to functional deficiency of T-lymphocytes. The activity of T-suppressors is especially reduced and violations occur in the B-system of immunity.
Specific and nonspecific immunocorrectors can affect the course of allergic and non-allergic forms of the disease. For this purpose, thymus preparations (taktivin, thymalin) are sometimes used; microbial preparations (prodigiosan), etc.
This approach is advisable. During the initial treatment period, strive to eliminate symptoms and normalize lung function. When this goal is achieved, treatment is not changed for three months, except in cases where high doses of steroids have been prescribed orally. With normal patient well-being, the volume of therapy can be gradually reduced in 3 stages in 3 months. Such a long period x daily assessment of the patient's condition is necessary to determine the effectiveness of treatment. In one step, reduce the dose of one drug if the patient takes several of them. If symptoms do not appear, take the second step. If symptoms appear, you should return to the previous treatment. This scheme works well for adults, but is especially necessary for children. It makes it possible to achieve a stable asymptomatic state with minimal treatment.
Immunoglobulin preparations used to prevent asthma attacks contain gonadotropic hormones. Therefore, they are contraindicated for people at puberty - during puberty: boys from 14 to 20 years old, girls from 12 to 18 years old; as well as during pregnancy, uterine fibroids and fibrocystic mastopathy.
Smoking not only badly affects the general well-being of the patient, causes irreparable damage to the entire respiratory system, but interferes with the medical treatment process. For example, theophylline (the most active relaxant of the smooth muscles of the bronchi) works much weaker for smokers, and therefore such patients need higher doses of the drug.
Generally, treatment should not be started with large doses of drugs. In addition to side effects: irritability, nausea, a patient may quickly become addicted to them. You can also not independently increase the dose of drugs, especially sympathomimetics. This is a risky way to cope with the worsening of the course of the disease. Short-acting sympathomimetics are usually used up to 3-4 times a day (6-8 inhalations). If the patient feels the need to increase the number of inhalations, you should definitely consult a doctor.
If treatment with sympathomimetics, theophylline, and other anti-asthma drugs does not help patients, then they can be offered a course of steroid therapy.
It is recommended during treatment with theophylline, a patient needs to drink more liquid with corticosteroids: 2.5-3 liters per day.
Treatment of bronchial asthma during pregnancy and breastfeeding
The treatment of asthma during pregnancy and breastfeeding has its own characteristics. First, asthma should be closely monitored during pregnancy. Only in this case, asthma will not adversely affect pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. For a developing fetus, the greatest danger is a lack of oxygen - hypoxia, which develops in a pregnant woman with exacerbation of asthma.
In general, inhaled forms are relatively contraindicated in the first 3 months of pregnancy and in the period immediately before childbirth; at the 4th month of pregnancy, drugs can be used, but control by a doctor is required. Acceptance of that tablet form is contraindicated for pregnant women due to the threat of miscarriage in the first and second trimester of pregnancy, during lactation.
In the treatment of asthma in pregnant women, inhalation hormones are preferred, among which beclomethasone (becotide, aldecin) is considered the safest, and cromone - intala preparations (sodium cromoglycate). In therapeutic doses, they do not have a damaging effect on the fetus. Of the tabletted hormones, the use of prednisone and prednisolone is possible - they have the lowest ability to penetrate the placental barrier.
During pregnancy, the use of any form of hormonal drugs should be strictly controlled by doctors; special attention is paid to the function of the adrenal glands of a newborn baby if the mother took any form of hormones during pregnancy.
Perhaps the use of drugs "ambulance" with certain limitations of salbutamol (ventolin), bricaiil,
During pregnancy and lactation are contraindicated:
- Of the tablet forms of hormones during pregnancy, triamcinolone is contraindicated(polcortolone), dexamethasone, betamethasone, depot preparations (diprospan, Kenalog, etc.);
- it is not recommended to take ketotifen (zaditen) and theophylline preparations;
- it is forbidden to take tablet beta-2 agonists;
- due to insufficient experience with the use of prolonged adrenergic agonists, for example, the server is not recommended. The final decision in the choice of the drug for the doctor.
Almost all medications used to treat asthma pass into breast milk in one way or another, but most of them are much lower in mother's milk than in her blood. During the period of breastfeeding, it is necessary: to avoid the use of prolonged, doponized and tablet forms of drugs (diprospan, Kenalog, servent, theophylline preparations, etc.); the next medication is carried out at least 4 hours before feeding. The use of inhaled hormones is not a contraindication to breastfeeding.
Treatment of bronchial asthma in children
Also has its own characteristics, the treatment of asthma in children. The initial manifestations of bronchial asthma in young children are often almost indistinguishable from obstructive bronchitis in respiratory viral infections. And therefore, bronchial asthma for a long time is not recognized and patients are not treated properly.
However, there are clear indicators that will help the doctor to correctly and timely diagnose: this is the presence of an allergic disease in one of the family members, the relationship of nighttime coughing attacks with a certain season or allergen.
Coughing and wheezing are characteristic of a number of diseases of the lower respiratory tract: bronchopulmonary dysplasia, congenital maldevelopment of the lungs, and several others. Very often, the development of allergic processes in children is consistent and begins with food allergies. Its appearance is associated with genetic factors. But leading to the realization of this genetic predisposition is contact with allergens. Especially when the mother during pregnancy consumes foods that are highly allergenic (fish, eggs, nuts, citrus fruits, chocolate, large quantities of dairy products), and also affect smoking, artificial feeding and respiratory infections. A large risk factor is the insufficiency of the barrier function of the gastrointestinal tract.
To date, a clear relationship has been identified between intestinal dysbiosis and the development of food allergies. Normal microflora inhibits the growth of pathogenic microbes, stimulates the immune system, which prevents the development of sensitization. Therefore, any allergic disease, including bronchial asthma, will always increase in the presence of intestinal dysbiosis. Of course, this is most characteristic of children in the first years of life, although at no age can you count on a complete disposal of allergic processes if you do not take care of the intestines.
Acute respiratory infections are a common cause of exacerbation of bronchial asthma in children. On the one hand, some infectious agents (chlamydia, mycoplasmas, herpes viruses, adenoviruses) contribute to secondary infection of the respiratory tract, on the other hand, they increase bronchial hyperreactivity and, accordingly, bronchospasm.
Thus, often and long-term sick children with a genetic predisposition are the most vulnerable. Such children should attend a childcare facility just before the school itself. The more parents will protect the child from contact with patients with respiratory infections, the less likely the child will develop early asthma. And all the drugs used to prevent acute respiratory viral infections and increase immunity will automatically reduce the frequency of seizures.
But if the child still has seizures, then anti-relapse therapy is especially important here. Drugs such as Intal or Tyled reduce airway reactivity and restore a normal immune response. Children often experience prolonged clinical remission and, accordingly, they are much less in need of drugs that relieve bronchospasm and antibiotics. Therefore, with frequent exacerbations, these drugs must be used as early as possible and for a sufficiently long time, that is, at least three months, since together with hardening and physical activity they can reduce the severity of the process. But at the same time, if seizures occur only 2-3 times a year, a child can do without them.
Another important point is vaccinations in children with bronchial asthma. For many, they become a real problem. On the one hand, in the modern world it is impossible to live without protection against infections, on the other hand, a vaccine that is not delivered on time can cause an exacerbation of the process. In fact, this is a completely solvable question. Such children should not be given immunoglobulin injections; but vaccination outside the period of exacerbation, especially in the summer in good weather, and even against the background of preventive treatment, almost always passes favorably. But the choice is left to the parents and the doctor.
If the child is not allergic to everything. blooming, but only on certain types of plants - the specific hyposensitization carried out in allergocenters (reducing hypersensitivity to allergens) gives a lasting positive effect.
If the child does not tolerate any product, it is important to completely exclude it. With the long-term exclusion of this product from the diet in the future, with age, it is possible that sensitization will disappear, but if the product is not excluded, it will only increase.
In children, unlike adults, the walls of the bronchial tree retain their elasticity, metabolic processes in the cells occur quite intensively. This allows you to fully use another type of treatment - barotherapy. More often these are pressure chambers with reduced pressure, less often with increased pressure. The technique is prescribed by doctors in barocenters. But it is important to know that this method, along with other preventive measures, helps to reduce the frequency and severity of asthma attacks in children. The most important thing is to be patient. After all, as a rule, at least three courses of 10-15 procedures each are required for a good lasting effect.
Often, adults tend to completely exclude physical activity in children. It is unacceptable. You can't do it in dusty rooms, you can't overstrain trying to set a record, but, having completely excluded physical education from life, it leads children to inactivity, to metabolic disturbances, and hence to aggravation of the course of bronchial asthma in the future.
It allows you to quickly release the bronchi from viscous sputum on time a professional massage. Massage is also able to enhance the supply of oxygen to the blood and the removal of carbon dioxide and thus restore metabolic processes in all organs and tissues.
Treatment of bronchial asthma: the use of nebulizers
In bronchial asthma, an important point in the implementation of successful therapy is the delivery of a drug to the site of inflammation in the bronchi, in order to achieve this result, an aerosol of a given dispersion must be obtained. For this, special devices are used, called nebulizers, which in fact are an inhaler that produces an aerosol with particles of a given size. The general principle of the apparatus is to create a fine aerosol of the substance introduced into it, which, due to the small size of the particles, penetrates deep into the small bronchi, which mainly suffer from obstruction.
In Russia, the most common are 2 types of nebulizers - ultrasonic and compressor. Each of them has both its advantages and disadvantages.
Ultrasonic, more compact and low noise, suitable for carrying with you, with their help you can enter oil solutions. Compressor ones due to the air pump are relatively large, they require stationary power supply from the AC mains, due to the operation of the same compressor they are quite noisy, but they have an important advantage, they can be used to introduce suspensions, and they are about 40-50% cheaper than similar ultrasonic ones of models
Gymnastics for patients with asthma
There is also special gymnastics for patients with bronchial asthma. This method is called the Buteyko method.
Proponents of this method are believed that one of the reasons leading to the development and worsening of symptoms of bronchial asthma is a decrease in alveolar ventilation of carbon dioxide. The main objective in the treatment of bronchial asthma with Buteyko breathing exercises is to gradually increase the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air of the lungs, which allows for a very short time to reduce hypersecretion and edema of the bronchial mucosa, reduce the increased tone of the smooth muscles of the bronchial wall and thereby eliminate the clinical manifestations of the disease . The method includes the use of breathing exercises aimed at reducing alveolar hyperventilation and / or dosed physical activity. During breathing exercises, the patient is invited to gradually reduce the inspiration depth to normal using various breathing techniques.
Although there are variations between the methodologists' techniques in different countries, the three basic principles of the Buteyko method remain the same: shallow breathing, nasal breathing and relaxation. Another important feature of the method is that before using the first three principles, the patient is obligatory transferred to corticosteroid hormone therapy, which in terms of effectiveness can compete with any respiratory exercises.
Treatment for bronchial asthma - homeopathy
Homeopathy among the alternative methods of drug exposure occupies an important place and often brings very good results, especially in the initial stages of the disease.
Homeopathy allows you to select the most suitable medications for one or, more precisely, for each individual person. In this case, the doctor takes into account the most subtle, and sometimes unique features of the course of the disease, as well as the individual qualities of the patient himself, his constitution, mental attitude, psychological structure, etc. Homeopathy rests on three pillars: the principle of similarity (similar is treated like), the principle of studying the mechanism of action of drugs on healthy people and the principle of treatment with small doses of drugs prepared using special technology.
The first two principles are inextricably linked. And if we briefly indicate their actions, this means that the homeopathic doctor prescribes to the patient those medicines that caused similar changes in a healthy subject. A meticulous selection of the drugs themselves and their systematic use in minimal doses allows the body to tune in to a wave of self-healing, activates all reserves, changes the course of the pathological process, leading the patient slowly but surely to recovery or to permanent remission - the attenuation of the symptoms of the disease.
The basis of these drugs are natural substances: healing plants, minerals, animal tissues.
All homeopathic remedies are divided into groups:
Constitutional are the most important means. These are those that are most suitable for a particular, specific type of people.
Here are the most common constitutional types predisposed to the development of asthma.
Belladonna (belladonna). It is more suitable for blue-eyed, fair-haired people with clean, delicate skin. The big head and fragile body, wide pupils are noteworthy. These are people of sanguine-nervous temperament, sensitive, emotional, sometimes irritable, with heightened taste, auditory, visual sensations. A person like Belladonna is usually impressionable, artistic, and often exalted. He is interested in everyone, strong and viable, with a penchant for plethora. Children of this type are distinguished by mild excitability, plethora. Usually they are developed beyond their years. In a period of well-being, people of this type are lively, cheerful, affectionate and kind. Meanwhile, during the illness, the character of this person acquires diametrically opposite features. There is a deep depression. The most characteristic sign of Belladonna is the sudden onset of the disease, its acute, extremely rapid course. The skin and mucous membranes are bright red, dry. Dry mucous membranes can be so pronounced that it makes it difficult for the patient to speak. The face is puffy, the pupils are sharply dilated, the eyes are red, shiny. There is a noticeable pulsation of the carotid arteries.
Calcium cardonicum (calcium carbonate). Such a patient is characterized by physical weakness, arising even from slight stress, severe chilliness, addiction to inedible things: chalk, lime, coal, etc., craving for eggs and sweets. In early childhood, these are obese, phlegmatic or, conversely, thin, emaciated children with dry, wrinkled skin. The head is disproportionately large. The face is pale, large features. The lag in physical and psychomotor development, lethargy, apathy are characteristic. Sweating of the head is expressed. The child experiences a variety of fears, a strong attachment to his mother, is afraid to be alone, and when visiting an unfamiliar society, he clings to his mother. An increase in all groups of lymph nodes, hypertrophy of the lymphoid tissue of the nasopharynx is characteristic. Not infrequently, such children suffer from allergic dermatoses - eczema, neurodermatitis. Immunity failure is also evident in older, preschool and school age in adults. Such patients usually belong to the group of "often ill." They are very characterized by a tendency to hypertrophy of lymphoid tissue, to adenoid growths, to hypertrophy of the tonsils, to the formation of polyps. For children during puberty, obesity is characteristic, and in boys it develops according to the female type. Adult patients are also prone to obesity, with a predominant deposition of fat in the abdomen, they do not like cold and damp.
Hepar sulfuris calcareum (sulfuric liver - an alloy of calcium carbonate and sulfur). The drug is suitable for patients with a depressed, depressed mood. These are quick-tempered, irritable, impatient people. They are characterized by pathological chilliness, increased sensitivity to cold, drafts and excessive sweating of the body and especially the legs with the release of a strongly smelling, even fetid sweat. Sensitivity to pain is unusually high: even the thought of a light surgical operation, an incision plunges patients into despair and awe. Typical tendency to suppuration of the most minor defects in the integrity of the skin, poor healing of wounds.
Phosphorus (phosphorus). Patients of this constitutional type of drug are distinguished by asthenic physique, lethargic posture. These are blondes with light, pale, delicate skin, with numerous freckles, with thin hair, thinned, transparent nail plates. Very lively, agile people with an increased reaction to impact, but quickly exhausted. A short rest has a beneficial effect on such a person. They are worried about fear of loneliness, darkness, fear of death from illness. Their appetite is usually increased and is accompanied by a feeling of emptiness in the stomach, weakness before eating. She feels better after eating. Weather sensitivity is very characteristic, the perception of smells, sounds, and light is sharpened. Possible increased bleeding.
Pulsatilla (Anemone). Usually this is a young, fair-haired, blue-eyed woman, asthenic physique, with poorly developed muscles. The character of such a person is mild, fearful, shy. She easily responds to comfort, inspired. Tearful. Afraid to stay alone in the evening, afraid of the dark, ghosts. Children from a very young age strive to be loved and throughout their lives they need constant support and care. Children are very attached to their mother. This connection is so strong that the child instantly feels the slightest change in the mood and physical condition of the mother. A characteristic feature of this constitutional type is variability. Changeability in everything: a quick change of mood, from unreasonable gaiety to unreasonable sadness, a change in the nature and localization of pain, changing throughout the day. The nature of coughing and others. The patient is looking for fresh air, because there always feels improvement, but the thought of cold causes chills. A notable sign is chilliness with poor heat tolerance. Shy, indecisive, but impudent nature.
Silicea (silicon). Fearful, timid, compliant, unsure people. This is a chilly, sensitive to cold patient. Sweating of the head and legs is characteristic, with the release of an unpleasantly smelling, sour, acrid sweat. Coldness can be expressed so significantly that even intense physical work does not lead to warming. Such people can have a very cold head, so they try to keep it warm, wrap it up, wear soft, warm hats. The tendency to suppuration of the slightest damage to the skin, to the development of torpid, chronic inflammatory processes is expressed.
Sulfur (sulfur). Usually this is a obese man, of medium height, with a limp, stooped posture, shoulders down, cannot stand still for a long time and must lean on something or walk around. These are fair-haired, blue-eyed people. Very characteristic changes in the skin - seborrheic rashes in the scalp, hair loss, acne. The skin of the face has an unhealthy appearance. An unpleasant odor can come from the body and all secretions. Such a person is afraid of cold water and does not like to wash. A "hot" patient who loves coolness but is sensitive to cold. Noteworthy is the "brightness", hyperemia of the visible mucous membranes, auricles, lips. Usually these people are irritable, selfish, disregard the interests of other people, angry from minor reasons. Daydreaming is combined with laziness, they can sit still for hours, despite a lot of things. Such people like to philosophize. Bronchial asthma is often combined or alternated with allergic skin lesions.
In these close proximity there is another group - etiotropic drugs. They are usually prescribed if the disease occurs as a result of some adverse effects - physical, mental or social. All of them also have a strictly specific purpose. Take, for example, this case: exacerbation of asthma is caused by hypothermia. For the treatment with these drugs, it is important which particular hypothermia occurs: if it arose from a dry wind, then Aconitum is necessary, if from dampness — Dulcamara, from melted snow — Calcarea phosphrica. The same emotional outbursts: grief, irritation, rage - Bryonia, Chamomilla; excited anxiety - Ambra, Zincum metallicum; excitement, longing, disappointment of love - Ignatia; fear - Aconitum, Arsenicum album.
The direct purpose of pathogenetic agents is to restore bronchial conduction, and drainage - therapy of endogenous (internal) intoxication.
Homeopathic therapy, like any method of treating patients with bronchial asthma, includes therapeutic measures carried out in the phases of exacerbation, and a gradual transition to rehabilitation and preventive effects in the phase of remission.
Now it is quite successfully used together with other methods. Observations show that the inclusion of homeotherapy in the treatment process allows, without prejudice to the patient, reducing the dose of allopathic, including hormonal, and, in some cases, completely abandoning them.
Treatment of bronchial asthma with traditional medicine methods - herbal medicine
Grasses are different and their effect is far from unambiguous.
It must be remembered that even the most harmless are addictive, they may develop an allergy or, conversely, loss of sensitivity to their action. Therefore, it is reasonable to treat with a single plant or collection not infinitely, but in courses for two to three weeks, then, if necessary, continue treatment, after taking a two to four-day break, prescribe a collection of medicinal herbs similar in type of action, but with other components .
Also, you must always remember that medicinal herbs have contraindications, and therefore their selection for treatment should be strictly individual and better when done by a specialist.
Consider the main plants, as well as contraindications for their use.
Aloe (agave). The use of aloe vera drugs causes a rush of blood to the pelvic organs. Contraindicated in diseases of the liver and gall bladder, with uterine bleeding, hemorrhoids, cystitis and pregnancy.
Warty birch. Due to the irritating effect on the kidneys, the use of infusion, decoction and tincture of birch buds as a diuretic is permissible only under the supervision of a doctor. Do not take for a long time.
Valerian, the roots. You can not eat for a long time and in large quantities. In such cases, it acts depressingly on the digestive organs, causes headache, nausea, an excited state, and disrupts the activity of the heart.
Pomegranate (fruits). Fruit juice should be drunk necessarily diluted with water, since the juice contains many different acids that irritate the stomach and corrode tooth enamel. Carefully apply the pomegranate bark, as an overdose can cause dizziness, weakness, blurred vision, cramps.
Large amounts of walnuts can cause spasms of the brain vessels in the front of it. In order for the body to benefit from this beautiful fruit, you need to eat no more than 10 nuts per day. By the way, other varieties of nuts should not be abused.
Elecampane. Contraindicated in kidney disease and pregnancy.
Oregano can not be used during menstruation and especially during pregnancy, as it relaxes the smooth muscles of the uterus and acts as an abortive remedy.
Ginseng. This male-favorite stimulant of physical and mental activity, a good means of increasing potency, with prolonged and immoderate use can cause the opposite effect. Know that ginseng tincture is drunk only in the cold season. The order is as follows: 2 weeks of admission alternate with 2 weeks of break, and so you need to conduct 4 courses. In acute infectious diseases and hypertension, ginseng is contraindicated. You can not take it and children under 16 years old.
Hypericum perforatum. The plant is poisonous. Internal use requires great care. With prolonged use, it causes a narrowing of blood vessels and raises blood pressure.
Viburnum vulgaris. Due to the high content of purines, the fruits of viburnum are contraindicated in gout and kidney diseases.
Nettle. Nettle juice is successfully taken for nervous disorders, epilepsy, bone marrow inflammation, and malignant neoplasms. But at the same time, it is forbidden to take it with uterine bleeding associated with fibroids, with atherosclerosis, hypertension, polyps. In old age, the intake of nettle should be limited, since it contributes to increased blood coagulation.
Red chillies. Internal use of tincture can cause acute gastrointestinal upsets.
Buckthorn brittle (bark). Poisonous plant. Bark that has been aged for at least a year in a dry place or subjected to heating at 100 ° C for an hour should be used. Otherwise, the use of bark is associated with the danger of poisoning (nausea, vomiting). Flax-seed. Long, more than 2-3 weeks, the use of flax preparations has a negative effect on cholecystitis and hepatitis.
Schisandra chinensis. It is used as prescribed by a doctor and under his supervision. Contraindicated in case of nervous excitement and overexcitation, insomnia, high blood pressure, severe cardiac abnormalities.
Onion. Onion tincture is contraindicated in cardiac and hepatic patients and in kidney diseases.
Raspberry. Only those who do not suffer from gout and jade can be treated with this wonderful folk remedy.
Juniper. Its fruits are contraindicated in acute diseases of the stomach, intestines, kidneys, and peptic ulcers. You can not use them for pregnant women.
Sea kale (kelp). You should not use seaweed for pulmonary tuberculosis, kidney disease, furunculosis, hemorrhagic diathesis, urticaria, during pregnancy, when the use of iodine is contraindicated.
Mint field and forest. When ingestion closes access to childbirth. For garden mint, cultural, this does not apply.
Sea buckthorn. Healing oil for many diseases of this plant is contraindicated in patients with acute cholecystitis, with a tendency to diarrhea and pancreatic pathologies.
Shepherd's bag. Preparations from a shepherd's bag are contraindicated for people with increased blood coagulation.
Plantain. Very effective for the treatment of gastric ulcer and gastritis with reduced secretion, infusions and decoctions from plantain and its seeds will have a harmful effect in the same diseases if the acidity of the stomach is increased.
Wormwood (silver). Poisonous plant. Internal use requires caution and accurate dosage. Avoid prolonged use. It can cause cramps, hallucinations, and even mental disorders. The use of bitter wormwood during pregnancy is contraindicated. It can not be used for peptic ulcer.
Sowing radish. Internal use of radish is contraindicated for cardiac and hepatic patients, with peptic ulcer of the stomach and duodenum, inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract.
Common beetroot When taking fresh beet juice, a strong spasm of blood vessels occurs. Therefore, freshly squeezed juice is allowed to stand for 2-3 hours, so that harmful volatile fractions evaporate. After that, the juice can be applied.
Yarrow. Poisonous plant. The internal use of all types of yarrow requires caution. Prolonged use of plants and an overdose cause dizziness and skin rash.
Violet tricolor, pansies. Prolonged use of violet drugs and an overdose can cause vomiting, diarrhea, and an itchy rash.
Horsetail. Despite the fact that it has long been used in folk medicine for the treatment of the bladder and excretion of kidney stones, it is contraindicated in acute kidney diseases, as it causes irritation of the kidney tissue.
Horseradish ordinary. You should beware of taking horseradish inside in large quantities.
Garlic. It is impossible to use to patients with an epileptic disease, full-blooded people and pregnant women.
Rosehip. After ingestion of rosehip infusion, it is necessary to rinse your mouth with warm water or soda warm water. Acids contained in the infusion corrode tooth enamel.
Consider the main plants used to treat bronchial asthma.
- black elderberry,
- a series.
With prolonged treatment, the composition of the fees must be periodically changed, lengthening the breaks.
Of potent plants, such as black belena, dope, belladonna, horsetail, it is advisable to use it briefly, during the maximum manifestation of seizures. With the development of allergic reactions, it is advisable to take an infusion or decoction of each component of the collection that caused the reaction for 3 days to determine the tolerance of drugs. Basically, these herbs have secretolytic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory, expectorant and general strengthening properties.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 1:
- Anise vulgaris (fruits) - 30 g,
- Common fennel (fruits) - 30 g,
- Sowing flax (seed) - 20 g,
- Creeping thyme (grass) - 20 g.
It is indicated for high blood pressure and excitability of the nervous system.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 2:
- Ledum marsh (grass) - 10g,
- Coltsfoot (leaf) - 10 g,
- Three-colored violet (grass) - 10 g,
- Calendula officinalis (flowers) - 10g,
- Peppermint (herb) - 10 g.
Cook the infusion. Take 1/3 cup after a meal.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 3:
- Licorice smooth (roots) - 10 g,
- Chamomile pharmacy (flowers) - 10 g,
- Elecampane high (rhizome) - 10 g,
- Anise vulgaris (fruits) - 10 g,
- Large plantain (leaf) - 10g.
Take a decoction of U3 glasses after a meal. Alternate with the collection of 2 to 3 days.
Treatment of bronchial asthma Collection 4:
- Common pine (buds) - 40 g,
- Plantain large (leaf) - 30 g,
- Coltsfoot (leaf) - 10 g.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 5:
- Datura ordinary (leaf) - 8 parts,
- Black Belena (leaf) - 1 part,
- Three-colored violet (grass) - 3 parts.
Burn the collection in a teaspoon and inhale smoke or smoke, making a cigarette.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 6:
- Anise vulgaris (fruits) - 20 g,
- White mistletoe (grass) - 10 g,
- Horsetail field (grass) - 10g,
- Creeping thyme (grass) - 20 g,
- Licorice naked (root) - 20 g.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 7:
- Creeping thyme (grass) - 20 g,
- Coltsfoot (leaf) - 20 g,
- Three-colored violet (grass) - 20 g,
- Elecampane high (root) - 20 g,
- Anise vulgaris (fruits) - 20 g.
From fees 4-7 prepare infusions, take 1/3 cup after a meal.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 8:
- Althaea officinalis (root) - 2 tbsp. spoons, White Birch (buds) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Veronica officinalis (herb) - 2 tbsp. tablespoons, Elecampane high (rhizome) - 2 tbsp. spoons, St. John's wort perforated (grass) - 4 tbsp. spoons, wild strawberries (leaf) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Calendula officinalis (flowers) - 2 tbsp. spoons. Put 4-6 tbsp. collection spoons in a thermos, pour 1 liter of boiling water. Insist 3-6 hours. Drink in 4-5 receptions, 10-20 minutes after eating.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 9:
- Heart-shaped linden (flowers) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Licorice naked (rhizome) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Common caraway seeds (fruits) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Common fennel (fruits) - 2 tbsp. spoons, A series of three-part (grass) - 2 tbsp. spoons, Salvia officinalis (herb) - 4 tbsp. spoons, Eucalyptus (leaf) - 2 tbsp. spoons.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 10:
- Air marsh (root) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Ledum marsh (grass) - 4 tbsp. spoons
- Black elderberry (flowers) - 3 tbsp. spoons
- White willow (bark) - 1 tbsp. a spoon,
- Elecampane high (rhizome) - 2 tbsp. spoons, St. John's wort perforated (grass) - 4 tbsp. spoons, Hyssop officinalis (herb) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Clover meadow (grass) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Stinging nettle (grass) - 3 tbsp. spoons.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 11:
- Common raspberries (leaf and fruits) - 3 tbsp. spoons, coltsfoot (sheet) —2 tbsp. tablespoons, Juniperus ordinary (fruits) - 1 tbsp. spoon, Dandelion officinalis (root) - 1 tbsp. spoon, Chamomile pharmacy (flowers) - 3 tbsp. spoons
- Highlander bird (grass) - 3 tbsp. spoons
- Yarrow (grass) - 2 tbsp. spoons, Violet tricolor (grass) - 3 tbsp. spoons.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 12:
- Peppermint (leaf) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Shepherd's bag (grass) - 1 tbsp. a spoon,
- Gray alder (fruit) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Common hops (fruit) - 2 tbsp. spoons, spring primrose (grass) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Cyanosis blue (grass) - 1 tbsp. a spoon,
- Large plantain (leaf) - 3 tbsp. spoons
- Creeping wheatgrass (rhizome) —2 tbsp. tablespoons Blackcurrant (leaf) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Common pine (buds) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Garden dill (fruits) - 1 tbsp. a spoon,
- Horsetail field (grass) - 3 tbsp. spoons.
Treatment for bronchial asthma Gathering 13:
- Valerian officinalis (rhizome) - 1 tbsp. a spoon,
- Anise ordinary (root) - 2 tbsp. spoons, Motherwort five-bladed (grass) - 2 tbsp. spoons, Oregano (grass) - 4 tbsp. spoons, St. John's wort perforated (grass) - ###2 tbsp. spoons, narrow-leaved fireweed (grass) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Flax sowing (seed) - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Coltsfoot (sheet) - 3 tbsp. spoons.
Application fees 9–13 are the same as fees 8
11-13 are recommended for severe weakness, cardiovascular failure.
Treatment of bronchial asthma Allergy fees:
2 tbsp. tablespoons of dry duckweed, pour 2 cups of water, boil for 2-3 minutes, leave for 1 hour, strain. Drink half a glass 4-5 times a day before meals.
Treatment of bronchial asthma: Collection for reactions to dust, including book:
- Centaury - 5 tbsp. spoons without top
- St. John's wort - 4 tbsp. spoons
- Dandelion (root) - 3 tbsp. spoons
- Horsetail - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Corn stigmas - 1 tbsp. a spoon,
- Chamomile pharmacy - 2 tbsp. spoons
- Rosehip (fruits) - 4 tbsp. spoons.
Grind the rosehip and dandelion roots in a mortar or crank through a meat grinder. Mix all. Pour 1 tbsp. collection spoon 1 cup cold water in an enamel pan, leave overnight. In the morning put on fire, bring to a boil (do not boil). Wrap for 4 hours, strain. Take 3 cups 3 times a day before meals for 6 months. At first, there may be an exacerbation, and after a month, recovery will begin.
With the right course of herbal treatment, the condition of patients quickly improves and the appointment of bronchodilators - expanding the lumen of the bronchi, as well as desensitizing drugs (reducing the body's sensitivity to allergen substances) may not be required.
Treatment of bronchial asthma with folk remedies Recipe No. 1
In 500 ml of a decoction of licorice (licorice root), dissolve 0.5 g of mummy. Take a decoction of 200 ml., (For children under 8 years old, reduce a serving) in the morning
1 per day. Store the broth in the refrigerator. After 2 days, cook a new one.
Treatment of bronchial asthma with folk remedies Recipe No. 2
Take 2 parts of the root of the Berrenz-saxifrage to 5 parts of alcohol or vodka. Insist 8 days in a dark cupboard, strain, squeeze. Take 30 drops per 1 tbsp. a spoonful of water 4-5 times a day. Note: 2 parts of the root are by weight, not size.
Treatment of asthma folk remedies Recipe number 3
2 tbsp. tablespoons chopped fresh turnip pour a glass of boiling water, cook for 15 minutes, strain. Take 1/4 cup 4 times a day or a glass at night.
Treatment of bronchial asthma with folk remedies Recipe No. 4
1 tbsp. spoon goose onion bulbs pour 3 cups boiling water, cook for 5 minutes
Treatment of bronchial asthma with folk remedies Recipe No. 5
2 hours, strain, drink 1/4 cup 4-5 times a day for 2-3 weeks.
Treatment of bronchial asthma with folk remedies Recipe No. 6
Drink vegetable juices well. Horseradish with lemon is very effective: grate a half-liter can of horseradish, mix with juice of 2-3 lemons. In the morning and afternoon, take 2 teaspoons, without drinking anything for half an hour.